• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

1997 Vol. 8, No. 3

Display Method:
Construction and Analysis of a Precipitation Recycling Model
Yi Lan, Tao Shiyan
1997, 8(3): 205-211.
Abstract:
In this paper a precipitation recy cling model is constructed over the main Yangtze River basin area (100°E~120°E, 25°N~35°N).Accordingly, precipitation recycling ratio and its seasonal variations are calculated on grid scale.It is estimated that annual mean 10% of all the rain that falls in the whole studying region is contributed by evaporation within the same region.The results also indicate that the fraction of precipitation that is locally drived varies substantially with location and season.For the region under study, the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation lies between 0.03 to 0.19, but reaches as high as 0.41 or 0.46 in late summer in two special locations-the northwestern part of Sichuan Basin and the northern part of Huanan area.The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism in the land-atmpspheric interaction.
Characteristics of a Meiyu Heavy Rain System Simulated by High Resolution Limited Area Model
Zhu He, E. Rasmussen
1997, 8(3): 212-219.
Abstract:
An experimental work first to transplant the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) successfully is performed in China.For the implementation, first of all is to re-adjust the coordination and to remove the inst ability caused by the Tibet Plateau.By the modifications, it can be smoothly operated in the middle and lower latitudes and the areas including the Plateau and the Changjiang Valley.Thus, this modified model is applied to simulate a torrential rain process which occurred in the Changjiang and Huie Valley in the Meiyu period in 1991.The simulation evolves the genesis, development and movement of a mesoscale system which had made the disastrous torrential rainfall and flood event.Futher more, by the comprehansive analyses of the high resolution atmo-physical parameters and the satellite images, it shows that the formation, construction, mechanism and intensity of the Tibet Vortics are quite different from the Southwest (Sichuan) Vortics.The latter are of comparatively weak raining system.On the other hand, we found that the Plateau System plays more effective role for the heavy rain event.The final result encourages us to use HIRLAM for the research and prediction of heavy rains in China.
Potential Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resources in China
Liu Chunzhen
1997, 8(3): 220-225.
Abstract:
Taking the output from GCMs as the climatic scenario and applying the monthly water balance model and water resources comprehensive assessment model, the impact of climate change on the annual and monthly runoff, evaporation as well as the water supply-lemand deficit were studied.The results show that the most significant influence of climate change is located on the Huaihe River and northern part to it.The increase or decrease of annual runoff is determined by the variation of runoff during flood season.In future dunatic condition, the water deficit will be enhanced in the Yellow,Huai and Hai River.
A Study of Flood Insurance
Hau Jiapeng, Li Guofang, Zhu Yuanshen, Zhou Yi
1997, 8(3): 226-232.
Abstract:
Flood insurance is one of an important unstructrual measure to control flood.But now it still attaches to enterprise property insurance and family property insurance in China, having no especial items for itself.The premium rates are determined only by the grade offire, without considering the risk of flood.This artide makes a through study on the problem of the premium rate formulation and the management risk of flood insurance by combining typical and living example.
A Study on Configulation and Hydraulic Conductivity of Rock Joints
Zhou Chuangbing, Ye Zitong, Han Bing
1997, 8(3): 233-239.
Abstract:
On the basis of roughness measuring,aperture simulation, permeability test and numerical analysis using FEM,this paper deals with the cxnnplicated hydraulic conductivity of rock joints.The studies show that seepage in rock joints is obviously inhomogeneous, anisotropic and coupled with the joint deformation, and there is negative exponential relation between the hydraulic conductivity of a rock joint and the normal stress on it.
A Finite Analysis Method for Ground Water Flow Problems through Complex Rock Masses
Zhou Zhifang, Li Yan
1997, 8(3): 240-246.
Abstract:
Based On numerical analysis method, this paper presented a finite analysis method(FAM)solving ground water flow problem of complex rock masses in whole coordinate.The analysis example shows that this method is reasonable and has more precise in numerical solution.
Numerical Solution to Parameter Control Inverse Problems in Fluid Mechanics Using Cybernetics Method
Wang Jiahe, Jin Zhongqing
1997, 8(3): 247-252.
Abstract:
The cybernetics method for solving parameter-control inverse problems of engineering fluid m,chanics is presented in the paper.Considering that from the point of view of controlling a system,the inverse problem is identical with cybernetics, it is pointed out that bringing the inverse problem into cybernetics and looking for a combination of one another,a new way for solving inverse problem can be found.The inverse problems of engineering fluid mechanics governed by partial differential equations are taken into account, and recasted as optimal control problems of distributed parameter systems.The inversion of seepage coefficient of underground water in engineering fluid mechanics is taken as an example, and the computer aided optimization method is applied.The numerical results show that the method is suitable for solving parameter control inverse problems.
A 2-D Numerical Model on the Fluvial Process in the High Sediment Laden Flow River
Huang Jinchi, Wan Zhaohui
1997, 8(3): 253-258.
Abstract:
With special considerition on the conservation of mass, the effect of sediment deposition and entrainment on the water continuity is reflected in a numerical model.A simple method was used to apply for the frequent variation of water boundary conditions in high sediment laden flow river.A mixed method was employed to solve the numerical equations of water and sediment movement, and finally, a special flood process in the Lower Yellow River was calculated with the model to verify the applicability for the high-sediment laden flow river.
Effect of the South to North Water Diversion on the Coarse Grained Sediment Discharge into the Yangtze River Estuary
Chen Xiqing, Chen Jiyu
1997, 8(3): 259-263.
Abstract:
Bcause of the sharp spatial difference in water resource distribution, the present serious water shortage problem and the future increasing demands for water resource in the North China, the large-scale south-to-north water diversion will become an inevitable trend.this paper studies the effect of such engineering works on the coarse-grained sediment output into the Yangtze River Estuary under the background that about 10% of the total Yangtze River runoff discharge were diverted to the other drainage basins in the North China.The study indicates that under the typical hydrological years, for examples, 1978, 1978, 1983 representing dry year, ordinary year and flood year, respectively,a reduction of about 3 000m3/s runoff discharge to the sea from the typical discharge level 23 000m3/s, 30000m3/s and 40 000m3/s would result in a decrease of sediment discharge(>0.05mm in grain-size) ranging from-39% to-24% of the total sedunent output, corresponding to 2350×104-4700×104 tons in the sediment amount.The relationship between the monthly mean runoff discharge and coarse-grained sediment discharge shows that under the higher runoff discharge, the percent of decrease is smaller, but the absolute decrease in sediment amount become greater.Such a reduction of coarse-grained sediment discharge into the estuary is expected to exert significant effect on the estuarine and coastal sediment dynamics and morphodynamics in the coming 21st century.
Water Quality Simulation of 4-Nitrochlorobenzene in the Middle Yellow River
Shen Xianchen, Feng Huihua, Wang Fengrong, Liu Linghua
1997, 8(3): 264-269.
Abstract:
A simulation study of 4-nitrochlorobenzene(P-NCCB) for Transport and transformation in the Middle Yellow River has been formulated.The paper focuses attention on effect of suspended sediments to transport and fate of 4-nitrochlorbenzene.The methods of calibration and verification of the models were studied.The simulation results of different type for flow periods, suspended sediments content and sedimentation were obtained.The models consist of water hydrodynamic DOC deoxygenation, and water quality models for description of partition, photolysis and volatilization of P-NCB.
Studies on Moving of Oncomelania in Water
Li Damei, Zhan Caihua, Hu Zhongmin
1997, 8(3): 270-274.
Abstract:
Moving of Oncomelania is the basicway spreading schistosomiasis.It is very necessary for schistosomiasis control to study the motion law of Oncomelania in water.Both the model experunent and the field observation have been used in this study,and a lot of sufficient data have been obtained.Through analysis and research of the data: this paper finds that moving of the overwhelming majorith Oncomelanicas, especially,the longwange moving is achieved with water flow.The moving way of Oncornelania in water have three: as suspended load as bed load and by floating drift.
Application of a Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station
Ma Guangwen, Wang Li
1997, 8(3): 275-280.
Abstract:
This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) for optimal operation of hydropower station.The GA uses a population of points at a time in contrast to the single-point approach by the traditional ones, and will guarantee to find the global optimum.The GA has the benef it of greatly reduced memory requirements, and does not need problem derivative.It is a good adaptive stochastic search method.A case study is given.
Estimating Surface Soil Moisture by the Remote Sensing Technique
Lu Jiaju, Zhang Heping
1997, 8(3): 281-287.
Abstract:
This paper studies the relationship between surface soil moisture and temperature, the seasonal influences and the transform from NOAA thermal infrared data into surface temperature in theory,and an effectiv remote sensing model is created to estimate surface soil moisture cantinuously.The model is operated simply and spreaded easy, so it has a practicability to monitor soil moisture for large scale areas, because it needs to use daytimez}loudless NOAA data only.
Real Time Flood Control Hydrological Information Transmission System in the Huaihe River Basin
Xin Jinbiao
1997, 8(3): 288-291.
Abstract:
The real-time flood control hydrological information transmission system in the Huaihe River Basin was built by a public packet switching data network which is a new technology, and has been supplied by post and teleco mmunication bureau recently and widely appliced abroad as a communication medium.The application of this system has changed the long-time lagging situation of transmitting the real-time flood control hydrological information by using lowspeed telex and has produced obviously social and economical benefits.This paper fully introduces the system's backg round, communication channels, constructions, functions, hardware conbination, software development, running situatio n and benefits.
1997, 8(3): 292-295.
Abstract:
Application of GIS to Hydrology and Water Resources Management
Wei Wenqiu, Yu Jianying
1997, 8(3): 296-300.
Abstract:
This paper introduces the conception of GIS and the state of GIS applicadons to the hydrology and the water resources management, and summarizes and reviewes the applications of GIS to the hydrology and the water resources management by means of a number of examples including the data management, hydrological modelling, water resources and environment management, and applications of advanced technique and theory.A ccording to there are existed problems in the applications and the prospects of computer technique and information technique some suggestions are proposed to apply GIS to the hydrology and the water resources management in the future.