• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

Supervisor: Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Nanjing Institute of water resources, China Water Conservancy Society

Chief Editor: Zhang JianYun

Address: No.34, Hujuguan, Nanjing

Post Code: 210024

Tel: 025-85829770

Email: skxjz@nhri.cn

ISSN 1001-6791

CN 32-1309/P

Postal Code:28-146

Articles latest have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
Articles online first have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
Display Method:
Digital twin watershed: new infrastructure and new paradigm of future watershed governance and management
YE Yuntao, JIANG Yunzhong, LIANG Lili, ZHAO Hongli, GU Jingjing, DONG Jiaping, CAO Yin, DUAN Hao
2022, 33(5): 683-704.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.001
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
The digital twin watershed is an important part of the digital twin earth. Clarifying the theoretical definition and connotation of the digital twin watershed is the premise and foundation for the research and construction of the digital twin watershed,and it is of great significance for the intelligent management of the watershed. Based on the digital twin theory and technology,the following research has been carried out in this paper. ① The definition of a digital twin watershed is given,and it is considered that a digital twin watershed is a new infrastructure and new paradigm serving the entire life-cycle management of the watershed,which is the interactive mapping,co-intelligence evolution,and virtual reality integration between physical and virtual watersheds driven by the full amount of data and domain knowledge,and the differences between a digital twin watershed and traditional modeling and simulation are analyzed. ② The connotation of a digital twin watershed is to realize the full life-cycle control of physical watershed objects by loading the physical watershed into the virtual watershed,mapping the physical watershed with the virtual watershed,and then managing and controlling the physical watershed using the virtual watershed. Its characteristics include high fidelity,evolution autonomy,real-time synchronization,closed-loop interaction,and symbiotic evolution. ③ The basic model of a digital twin watershed is composed of a physical watershed,a virtual watershed,the real-time connection and interaction,the digital enabling service,the twin watershed data,and the twin watershed knowledge. Its core capabilities include physical watershed perception and control,digital expression of all of the water-related elements,visual dynamic presentation of real scene,watershed data fusion supply,watershed knowledge fusion supply,watershed simulation and deduction,and self-learning and optimization of digital twin watershed. ④ This paper puts forward the key scientific problems and key technical systems to be solved in the digital twin watershed,and looks forward to the development direction of the digital twin watershed from the perspective of a perception network,data network,knowledge network,model network,and service network,and expounds the enabling field of the digital twin watershed. This paper aims to provide theoretical guidance for the application of digital twin watershed technology through the new research paradigm of digital twin watershed theory and to provide useful inspiration and reference for future smart watershed research and the application of digital technology in watershed governance and management.
Construction and application of resilience evaluation model of water resources-water environment-social economy complex system in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
ZHAO Ziyang, WANG Hongrui, ZHANG Li, LIU Xuan, ZHAO Yong
2022, 33(5): 705-717.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.002
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
To avoid external shocks and challenges and to maintain regional peace and stable development,the research on the resilience of the water resources- water environment- social economy complex system is one of the important ways. Based on the ideas of projection pursuit and differential equation,this study constructs a new resilience evaluation model to evaluate the resilience of the water resources-water environment-social economy complex system in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 1999 to 2018. Taking the level of resilience of Yangtze River Economic Belt in 2011 as turning point,the results confirmed that the level of resilience maintain stable before 2011 and steady improve after 2011. The findings also revealed that the factor affecting the level of resilience in Jiangxi and Yunnan was natural resource endowment conditions,the factors affecting the level of resilience in Shanghai were technological development and government macroeconomic policy,While the level of resilience in other provinces were undergo a transition between the above factors. The order of optimal control factors was ranked as adaptability > restoration > resistance,and the optimal control factors gradually shifted from resistance to adaptability.
Changes in pan evaporation and actual evapotranspiration of the Yangtze River basin during 1960—2019
YE Linyuan, LU Han, QIN Shujing, ZHANG Lu, XIONG Lihua, LIU Pan, XIA Jun, CHENG Lei
2022, 33(5): 718-729.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.003
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
As the link between energy balance and water cycle,changes in evaporation are of critical importance for regional hydrological cycle and water resources management of the Yangtze River basin (YZRB). In this study,the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving mechanisms of the long-term changes in pan evaporation (Epan) of the YZRB from 1960 to 2019 were investigated using the PenPan model,and changes in actual evapotranspiration (Ea) were further evaluated using the latest generalized complementary relationship of evaporation. Results show that:① Both Epan and Ea of the whole YZRB decreased and then increased before and after 1990. The decreases of wind speed and net radiation were the main drivers for decreasing trend of Epan before 1990,but the rise of temperature and decrease of relative humidity were the main drivers for increasing trend of Epan after 1990. ② Trends of pan evaporation in both major climatic regions of YZRB (i.e.,plateau climatic region and subtropical climatic region) were reversed before and after 1990 and were driven by different mechanisms. During 1960—1989,Epan decrease in the plateau climatic region was driven by changes in temperature and radiation,while Epan decrease in subtropical climatic region was driven by changes in wind speed and radiation. ③ During 1990—2019,Epan increase in the plateau climatic region was mainly driven by the rising temperature,increased wind speed and decreased relative humidity,while Epan increase in the subtropical climatic region was largely driven by the rising temperature and decreased relative humidity. This study can provide as a reference for the water cycle change detection and water resources allocation in the YZRB.
Evolution and non-stationary characteristics of summer precipitation structure over the Yangtze River Delta
WU Lei, XU Youpeng, WANG Qiang, XU Yu, GAO Bin
2022, 33(5): 730-742.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.004
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
This research aimed to determine the evolution and non-stationarity characteristics of summer precipitation structure over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in a changing environment. Based on the daily precipitation data from 72 rain gauges over the YRD during 1960—2016,the methods of Pettit and Mann-Kendall were applied to investigate the spatio-temporal variation rules of summer precipitation,considering the variables of precipitation amount,days,intensity and the incidence rates of light rain,moderate rain,heavy rain,and rainstorms,and analyze their causes. The results showed that the incidence rate of light rain decreased through time at most gauges,but the other six indices increased at most gauges. Among these,the non-stationarity in the incidence rate of light rain decreased monotonically,while the non-stationarity characteristics of precipitation amount,intensity,and incidence rates of heavy rain and rainstorms increased monotonically. These gauges were mainly scattered in the Tai Lake Basin,suggesting that this region is likely to face even greater risks from flooding. For most gauges,the intensity of the East Asian summer monsoon was positively associated with the incidence rate of light rain,but it was negatively associated with the other six indices. Take the Tai Lake basin as an example,urbanization increased the precipitation amount,intensity and incidence rates of heavy rain and rainstorms,with contribution rates of 25.4%,27.9%,54.6%,and 25.5%,respectively. However,urbanization decreased the precipitation days and the incidence rates of light rain and moderate rain,with contribution rates of -37.3%,-33.2%,and -100%,respectively.
Multi-scale hydrological experimental observations and responding mechanisms of storm floods in rapid urbanization areas
WANG Qiang, XU Youpeng, YU Zhihui, LIN Zhixin, GAO Bin
2022, 33(5): 743-753.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.005
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
Rapid urbanization processes alter the regional underlying surface,leading to changes in the hydrological cycle. Such changes have made it difficult to explain the traditional water yielding and runoff routing mechanism,which necessitates our new exploration. In this paper,taking the Yangtze River Delta region as an example,we have conducted the experimental observations in basins with the different urbanization levels and different space scales. Via the collected first-hand hydrologic data,namely,rainfall,soil moisture,and streamflow with high resolutions (5 min time intervals),we adopted data-driven flood feature analysis to reveal the responses of the flood characteristics,such as flood lag time and peak discharge. Then,we discussed the response mechanism of rainstorm and flood in rapid urbanization areas. The main conclusions are as follows:① Compared with other land use/cover types,the response of soil moisture for urban land are more intense under different rainstorm events (usually increasing more than 4% for the surface layer). The change of underlying surface in urbanized area affects the processes of surface runoff by influencing the dynamics of soil moisture. The soil moisture content of urban land and wasteland with low vegetation coverage showed steep rise and fall with the beginning and end of rainfall,while that of land use with higher coverage showed slow rise and decline trends. ② Flood peak lag time and peak discharge are mainly controlled by watershed scale. There have power law relationships between flood lag time and peak flow with watershed scale,and factors such as impervious surface and topography also have some influences on flood characteristics. ③ Rainstorm is a direct driving factor of flood in the Yangtze River Delta region. Rainfall characteristics are strongly correlated with the peak discharge,peak discharge per unit area,and runoff depth,with correlation coefficients above 0.49,0.41 and 0.78,respectively. In general,the natural geographical characteristics and rainfall are the main factors affecting the flood characteristics,but the impact of the urban underlying surface on the flood characteristics cannot be ignored. The processes of rainstorm floods have been directed affected by the modification of soil moisture dynamics due to urbanization. Under the dual role of urbanization and climate change,the regional flood risk would be intensified in the future.
Classification of sediment transport forms in the Yangtze Estuary and its influence on sedimentation in the deepwater navigational channel
CHENG Haifeng, LIU Jie, HAN Lu, WANG Zhenzhen, ZHANG Guoqing, YE Tingting
2022, 33(5): 754-765.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.006
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
Sediment transport in tidal estuaries is complex and changeable. How to scientifically classify the forms of sediment transport and evaluate its impact on channel sedimentation is the key to clarify the source of sediments deposited in the channel and formulate channel siltation reduction measures. In this paper,a new method identifying three forms of sediment transport,that is the bed load (BL),the suspended load (SL) and the bed-suspended conversion load (BSCL),was proposed based on analyzing the grain size of surficial bed sediment (SBS) and near bottom suspended sediment (NBSS). The sediment samples were collected along the Deepwater Navigational Channel (DNC) in the Yangtze Estuary (YE) during the flood and dry seasons of 2015 and 2018,and the contributions of three forms of sediment transport to the channel sedimentation was quantified. The results show that the upper turning point of grain size cumulative frequency curve is able to well represent the sediment transport form transition from BL to SL. There exists a significant sediment exchange between SBS and NBSS at the South Channel (SC) as well as the North Passage (NP) of YE. The sediment transport in DNC are not only in forms of BL and SL,but also in BSCL,which accounts for the proportion of 50% to 60% of the channel sedimentation. The contribution of BL to the channel deposition at SC segment of DNC in flood and dry season are 36% and 26% respectively,which is higher than that of SL occupying 6% and 13%. In contrast,the contribution of SL to the channel deposition at NP segment of DNC ranges from 44% to 48%,which is much higher than that of BL only accounting for 3% to 6%. The proposed method based on the grain size analysis provides a new sight on understanding the characteristics of sediment movement in tidal estuary and identifying the source of sediments deposited in the channel.
Projection of future droughts across the Lancang-Mekong River under a changing environment
LONG Di, HAN Zhongying, WANG Yiming
2022, 33(5): 766-779.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.007
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
To enhance the resilience of riparian countries associated with the Lancang-Mekong River (LMR) to drought under a changing environment,there is a pressing need to project future droughts across this river basin. Bias corrected projections from five CMIP6-GCMs under three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) were used as forcing data of a distributed hydrologic model (CREST-Snow) to project future streamflow of the LMR,and to examine meteorological and hydrological droughts across the LMR basin during 2020—2050. The regulation effect of cascade reservoirs on the mainstem of the Lancang River on downstream streamflow in the future was also quantified. Results show that although the entire basin will likely experience an overall wetting trend,the frequency of extreme dry and wet events across the LMR basin is likely to increase during 2020—2050. Droughts will more frequently occur during 2020—2029,as opposed to wet events that will be mainly concentrated during 2030—2050. From a spatial perspective,Laos and Thailand are likely to experience more frequent and severe droughts than other riparian countries. Cascade reservoirs on the Lancang River in China can effectively increase dry-season streamflow in downstream areas (decreasing from 99% in the upper stream to 68% in the downstream),playing a positive and important role in mitigating water shortage during dry seasons or droughts. We advocate for enhancing the cooperation through improving regulation of reservoirs across the entire basin,which should benefit water security and mitigation of droughts for all riparian countries of the LMR.
An innovative multi-source precipitation merging method with the identification of rain and no rain
LI Lingjie, WANG Yintang, TANG Guoqiang, GAO Xuan, WANG Leizhi, HU Qingfang
2022, 33(5): 780-793.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2022.05.008
Abstract PDF
Abstract:
Multi-source precipitation merging is a crucial way to estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation accurately. The commonly used merging methods mainly focus on bias correction of the total precipitation amount or precipitation intensity but often neglect to identify short-duration precipitation. In this study,we proposed a merging framework of multi-source precipitation by identifying rain and no rain and constructed a precipitation merging method considering both rain area identification and rainfall estimation by coupling the geographical weighted logistic regression (GWLR) and geographically weighted regression models (GWR). Then,the merging experiments of the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation Version 2.1 (MSWEP V2.1) and the daily precipitation observed by the ground gauges network over the Han River basin were implemented. The results show that the proposed method successfully reproduces the spatial pattern of rain and no rain and catches the precipitation center. It overall strengthens the performance of MSWEP V2.1 to estimate ground precipitation,reduces the false alarm rate (RFA) and false precipitation (PF) by more than 60%,and improves the critical success index (ICS) and Kling-Gupta efficiency coefficient (EKG) by more than 40%. Moreover,the gains of correcting PF and improving EKG are higher than 10% against the spatially interpolated precipitation. Meanwhile,compared with reference data,precipitation fusion enhances the classification accuracy of heavy precipitation events (intensity ≥ 50 mm/d) by not less than 60%. The innovative method effectively improves the performance of precipitation estimation and provides a new idea for multi-source precipitation merging.

NewsMore >

Download Center

Links