• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

Supervisor: Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Nanjing Institute of water resources, China Water Conservancy Society

Chief Editor: Zhang JianYun

Address: No.34, Hujuguan, Nanjing

Post Code: 210024

Tel: 025-85829770

Email: skxjz@nhri.cn

ISSN 1001-6791

CN 32-1309/P

Postal Code:28-146

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Articles online first have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Dynamic changes of typical glacier-fed lakes in different climatic zones around the world from 1995 to 2015
LIU Jiping, JIN Jing, LI Shengming, SONG Kaishan
2021, 32(1): 1-9.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.001
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Based on Landsat images captured in 1995, 2005 and 2015, a study was conducted in this paper on the typical glacier-fed lakes located in different climatic zones globally for their area, quantity and response to climate change, with the assistance of RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS(Geographic Information System). The results showed that:① The area of globally typical glacier-fed lakes increased by 2.32%, but the number of them declined by 2.26% during the period from 1995 to 2015. The area of small (< 1 km2) and great lakes(>50 km2) showed the most significant changes, while those medium-size lakes(1-50 km2) were shown to be relatively stable, with the area and number of glacier-fed lakes changing at a faster pace than in the period from 2005 to 2015.② The area and number of glacier-fed lakes in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones exhibited an increasing trend from 1995 to 2015. Particularly, the glacier-fed lakes in tropical zone showed the most significant change as the area covered by them increased by 20.62% and the number of them rose 25.32%. By contrast, the area and number of glacier-fed lakes in subfrigid zone and frigid zone exhibited a decreasing trend. More specifically, the glacier-fed lakes in frigid zone showed the most evident change as the area and number of glacier-fed lakes in frigid zone was reduced by 11.3% and 18.97%, respectively. This paper provides basis and reference for subsequtial studies on the changes to glacier-fed lakes and the influencing factors for these changes.
Precipitation concentration characteristics in China during 1960—2017
LIU Xiangpei, TONG Xiaohui, JIA Qingyu, XIN Zhuohang, YANG Jianren
2021, 32(1): 10-19.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.002
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Precipitation concentration is an important component of precipitation structure. The present study uses daily precipitation data from 1960—2017 to calculate the precipitation concentration index Q and investigate in detail the spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation concentration in China. In particular, this analysis considers how precipitation concentration is related to both precipitation amount and maritime conditions. The results indicate that China's yearly mean Q value is 0.38, with Q values highest in central China and lower in northern and southern China. Precipitation concentration is higher in winter and autumn, with mean Q values of 0.53 and 0.51, respectively; in contrast, the mean Q values for summer and spring are 0.39 and 0.48, respectively. For China as a whole, the yearly mean Q value is increasing slowly with time; however, yearly mean Q trends exhibit regional variation, with positive and negative temporal trends in southeastern and northwestern China, respectively. The results indicate a negative correlation between precipitation concentration and precipitation amount at both annual and seasonal scales (correlation coefficient of-0.71 at the annual scale). This correlation is strongest in autumn and weakest in winter (correlation coefficients of -0.89 and-0.70, respectively). Moreover, both precipitation concentration and precipitation amount control the area affected by flood and drought. The correlation coefficient between yearly Q and the NINO3.4 index increases and then decreases with increasing lag time, with the strongest correlation (coefficient:0.13) found for a lag time of 2 months. This correlation also exhibits a distinct spatial pattern, with a "-+-" distribution from north to south. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between yearly Q and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation increases and then decreases with increasing lag time; this correlation is strongest (coefficient:0.12) for a lag time of 4 months. This relationship exhibits a negative correlation across most of China.
Distributed hydrological model of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau based on the hydrothermal coupling: Ⅰ: hydrothermal coupling simulation of "snow-soil-sand gravel layer" continuum
ZHOU Zuhao, LIU Yangli, LI Yuqing, WANG Pengxiang, WANG Kang, LI Jia, ZHU Yiming, LIU Jiajia, WANG Fuqiang
2021, 32(1): 20-32.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.003
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The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the "Asian Water Tower", is a typical alpine mountain area. Snow-covered permafrost and seasonally frozen soil widely exist on this plateau, profoundly affecting the water cycle process of the entire region. In addition, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has the characteristics of a thinner soil layer and a thicker underlying sand and gravel layer, forming a special "snow-soil-sand gravel layer" hydrothermal medium structure. To further study the water cycle mechanism of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, this study selected the Niyang River basin as a typical area to perform field-heat-coupling experiments in the field. Combined with the geological and climatic characteristics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a 12-layer "snow-soil-sand gravel layer" continuum was constructed to describe the hydro-thermal coupling model of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A complete hydro-thermal coupling simulation equation and parameter calculation method are described. The model was validated using the measured results of the temperature, liquid water content, and freezing depth of the soil and gravel layer in the freezing and thawing period of 0-160 cm from 2016 to 2017. The mean values of the simulated R2 of the temperature of each layer and the moisture content during freezing and thawing were 0.91 and 0.52, respectively. The R2 of the soil freezing depth is 0.76. The results show that the model can better reflect the hydrothermal variation of stratified soil and sand gravel during freezing and thawing processes. The results show that the model has adequate applicability in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and can reflect the special change process of moisture and temperature of the soil and gravel layer during the freezing and melting processes in this area.
New model for water resources spatial equilibrium evaluation and its application
YANG Yafeng, GONG Shuxin, WANG Hongrui, ZHAO Ziyang, YANG Bo
2021, 32(1): 33-44.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.004
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To mitigate the insufficient consideration of fuzziness and dynamic conditions in water resources spatial equilibrium evaluation, a new model for water resources spatial equilibrium evaluation was developed based on the concept of variable set and partial connection number. The relative membership degree and level characteristic value of the evaluation object were calculated by the variable set evaluation method; The information evolution and its influence on the levels were described by the partial connection number method in order to obtain the rating strategy based on the maximum support principle. The two methods' results were integrated to evaluate the spatial equilibrium state of water resources. The results of application to 31 Chinese provinces in 2017 show that:① the spatial equilibrium of water resources in the Southeast of China is in good conditions, while the Northwest is in a relatively poor condition. The South has better conditions than the North and the East has better conditions than the West; ② The water resources spatial equilibrium situation of 17 provincial administrative regions, including Beijing, present a worsening trend, which calls for further strengthening of management. The other areas present a benign developing trend; ③ In some provinces, such as Sichuan and Shaanxi, the equilibrium degree of each index is quite different, which suggests a need to be adjusted and optimized.
Happy River evaluation system and its application
ZUO Qiting, HAO Minghui, JIANG Long, ZHANG Zhizhuo
2021, 32(1): 45-58.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.005
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The construction of rivers into Happy Rivers is a new goal for river management in China in the new era, which is of great significance for sustainable development of river health and the society. The present study further evaluated the concept of a Happy River and proposed a Happy River evaluation system. The evaluation system is based on the framework of the "Four Major Judgment Criteria", namely, safe operation, continuous supply, ecological health, and harmonious development, and included 16 and 34 basic and alternative indicators, respectively, according to the three levels of "goal-criteria-indicator". By referencing the large number of normative and standard documents along with the research results, five levels of Happy River grading standards were proposed for each indicator. The "Happy River Index" was introduced for quantitative evaluation of river status, and the "single index quantification-multiple indices synthesis-poly-criteria integration" method was used to calculate the index; Finally, the evaluation system was applied to the Yellow River, China for 2017, including the Yellow River segment, nine provinces, and the Weihe River tributary. The present study verified that the proposed evaluation system accurately represented the Happy River status of the Yellow River, and the evaluation system is therefore reliable and applicable.
Dynamic prediction and regulation of water resource carrying capacity: a case study on the Yellow River basin
HUANG Changshuo, GENG Leihua, YAN Bing, BIAN Jinyu, ZHAO Yuting
2021, 32(1): 59-67.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.006
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This study aimed to established the water resource carrying capacity of the Yellow River basin (YRB), China in respect to water quantity and quality to facilitate accurate prediction of changes in regional water resources carrying capacity and to formulate an optimal control plan based on the "economic society-water resources-ecological environment" mutual feedback mechanism. Various methods, including element diagnosis, identifying indicators of key drivers, integrating support vector machines and system dynamics were applied to establish a quantitative dynamic water resources carrying capacity simulation model for the YRB by formulating control objectives and analyzing the difficulty and cost of managing drivers of carrying capacity. The orthogonal test method was applied to improve the capacity and reduce load within the YRB. The six indicators of key drivers chosen were:① unconventional water utilization; ② seawater intake; ③ average irrigation water consumption; ④ irrigation area; ⑤ industrial value-added water consumption; ⑥ 10, 000 yuan industrial value-added water consumption. The simulation results showed that the upstream, middle and downstream areas of the YRB are currently in an overloaded or severely overloaded state at all planned levels before water transfer projects such as the West Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project become effective. The study identified the optimal control plan to avoid overloading of the annual water carrying capacity of the YRB at all levels and provides scientific guidance for water resources management of the YRB.
Potential role of coordinated operation of transboundary multi-reservoir system to reduce flood risk in the Lancang-Mekong River basin
HOU Shiyu, TIAN Fuqiang, LU Ying, NI Guangheng, LU Hui, LIU Hui, WEI Jing
2021, 32(1): 68-78.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.007
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The Lancang-Mekong River (LMR) basin has historically been affected by severe floods and is likely to suffer further flood events with higher peaks and longer duration in the future due to climate change, which calls for collective action to respond. This study examined the potential flood control effect of coordinated operation of the LMR transboundary multi-reservoir system by establishing a distributed hydrological model coupled with a reservoir operating model, simulating the runoff of 13 tributaries and 5 mainstream sections. Results show that:① Flood magnitude at the five sections along the Mekong River is significantly reduced by mitigating flood recurrence from 200 years to 20-50 years.② In terms of flood control, the left-bank tributaries contribute more than the right bank. Tributaries with relatively higher flood control capacity are:Lancang, Nam Ou, Nam Ngum and Nam Theun, Nam Mun, Se Kong and Se San. ③ Different tributaries play a major role in flood control across regions. Luang Prabang's main flood control tributaries are Lancang and Nam Ou. At Nakhon Phanom, Lancang's flood control contribution is same as Nam Ngum and Nam Theun's sum. In the downstream of Pakse, the flood control contribution of Nam Mun and Se Kong are higher than Lancang. This research provides a reference for transboundary flood control cooperation between riparian countries, which face an important opportunity underpinned by the Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Mechanism (LMC).
Experimental study on rheological properties of soft mud in Yangtze River Estuary
JIANG Qin, CUI Li, NIE Sihang, FAN Shuming, YING Ming
2021, 32(1): 79-87.   doi: 10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2021.01.008
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In order to clarify the soil mechanical properties of soft mud in the Yangtze River Estuary under shear loads, experimental study by using Anton Paar MCR302 rotary rheometer was conducted to examine the rheological responses of the mud to shear forces, especially on the basic rheological property of the mud with bulk density ranging from 1.16 to 1.72 g/cm3, as well as the associated influences of bulk density, salinity, pH value and temperature. The results showed that under the action of shear loads, the mud in the Yangtze River Estuary exhibits Bingham fluid characteristics, and the relationship between shear stress and shear rate can be quantitatively described based upon the Dual-herschel-bulkley rheological model. With the increase of shear rate, the complex phase transformation process from solid to liquid of the mud was observed which can be classified into three typical stages:solid-like stage, solid-liquid transition stage and liquid-like stage, corresponding to the elastic, viscoelastic and plastic material respectively. The shear strength of the mud increases with the increase of bulk density, salinity and pH value, and decreases with the increase of temperature. Finally, with the measured results, an empirical constitutive equation was established to describe the rheological behaviors of the mud, that can be applied for quantitative analysis of the mud movement under hydrodynamic forces such as tides and waves.

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