• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

2005 Vol. 16, No. 3

Display Method:
Effect of random characteristics of soil and aquifer on the water flow in formations
CAI Shu-ying, LIN Lin, YANG Jin-zhong, LIU Jin-feng
2005, 16(3): 313-320.
Abstract:
A stochastic partial differential equation of water flow in saturated unsaturated formations is developed with the soil and aquifer conductivities treated as the random fields.The variability of water head resulting from the random roil parameters are analyaed based on the stochastic numerical rmdel.It is shown that the water head variability increases with the increasing soil parameter variability and its correlation length.The variability of water velocity is large in:direction and small at the pumping point when there is a pumping well in the simulation domain.The unsaturated parameter a in the Gardner model has larger effect on the variability of pressure head and water content than the saturated conductivity of the soil.The simulation resups indicate that the smaller the water content,the larger the variability of water content.The application of the stochastic numerical model to the analysis of the reliability of groundwater flow is also discussed.
Recharge and loss of groundwater during freezing-thawing period in inland basin, Northwestern China
GUO Zhan-rong, HAN Shuang-ping, JING En-chun
2005, 16(3): 321-325.
Abstract:
In the plain located in the north slope of Tianshan Mountain, early November is the beginning of the freezing period, while early March next year is the beginning of the thaw period.And the freezing period is much longer than the thaw period.In the experimentation station of the groundwater balance, located in Changji County, three kinds of soil (stony sand, fine sand and clay), which are local typical soil in the inland basins, are chosen to observe the recharge and the loss of groundwater in freezing-thaw period.According to the critical depths of groundwater loss, several kinds of groundwater table are designed for all kinds of soil.In the freezing period, where the stony sand and sand are distributed, the protection of groundwater resources is favorable In the thaw period, no matter what depth of groundwater table, the recharge occurrs for all of the three, but the recharge of the fine grained soil is relatively less and shows the delaying effect.Contrarily, the coarse grained soil is more favorable for the formation of groundwater resources.The largest loss of groundwater is not beyond 25.3 mm in one month during the freezing period(for example, stony sand), and the largest recharge is more than 113.3 mm in the same time during the thaw period(for example, fine grained sand), so the thaw period is the important period of groundwater recharge each year.
Adjustment and application of the limited level of reservoirs during the flood season
GAO Bo, WANG Yin-tang, HU Si-yi
2005, 16(3): 326-333.
Abstract:
Based on the systematically analysis of the major impact factors about the limited level of reserwirs during the flood season,and from the point of the view of safe utilization of flood resources,the paper illustrates the principles of analyzing,dermnstrating and confirming comprehensively the limited level of reservoirs during the flood season,put forward the framewark and the methods for the risk design,and details with the contents of adjusting reasonably the limited level of reserwirs during the flood season.Finally,taking the Panjiakou Reserwir in the Haihe River basin in China as an example,the paper analysis the reasonable adjustment scheme of the limited level of the reservoir during the flood season according to the design flood,the flood forecasting,the flood control operation under forecasting,the flood control standard of upstream and downstream of the reserwir,the immigrants range,and the benefits and the risk of the reservoir in a long period of the operation simulation.
Research on load model of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus
XUE Jin-feng, XIA Jun, LIANG Tao, ZHANG Xiu-mei
2005, 16(3): 334-337.
Abstract:
In order to study the origin of the particilate nitrogen and phosphorus(PN(P)) nonpoint source (NPS) pollution there,so as to get it under control,some artificial rainfall experiments was made around Guanting Reserwir.the results show that the correlation between transporting rate of PN(P) and yielding rate of sediment is very good,with the average correlation coefficient 0.9594 and 0.9772 for PN and PP respectively.Therefore,a new load model of PN(P) is put forward,in which enrichment coefficient is equal to the ratio of the percent content of total nitrogen (total phosphorus) in sediment to it in mil.While applying it,we study the spatial distribution of PN(P) loadon the Guishui watershed according to the DF1VI and the information obtained from land use map and mil map.Its results show that PN(P) mainly originated from hill and mountains where the ratio of vegetative cover is very low.
Geochemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the sediment pore water of Erhai Lake
FU Ping-qing, WU Feng-chang, LIU Cong-qiang
2005, 16(3): 338-344.
Abstract:
We study the DOC concentrations, the UV-Vis absorbance, fluorescence and the molecular weight of the dissolved organic matter in the sediment pore water of Erhai Lake.DOC concentration has a high value at the sediment-water interface, with a sharp decrease within the depth of 6 cm, and, then, increases later.The vertical distributions of a254, a280 and fluo-rescence intensity at Ex=335 nm are in agree with the distribution of DOC.The E3/E4 values range from.to 6 and most of the values are less than 3.5, which means that the DOM in sediment pore water has relatively high humification, aromaticity and molecular weight.f450/500 values range from 1.48 to 1.59, showing the terrestrial nature of the majority of the sediment pore water DOM.Through the HPSEC results, all the sediment pore water DOM show a multi-modal distribution of the molec-ular weight.Weight-average molecular weight (Mw), which ranges from 1462 to 1953 Da, and number-average molecular weight (Mn), which ranges from 547 to 900 Da, vary a little along the depth and mainly have a trend of increase.The poly-dispersity, ρ (the ration of Mw to Mn) ranges from 2.02 to 3.05, which suggests that the pore water DOM resides in a rela-tively wide size distribution.In general, the geochemical characteristics of sediment pore water DOM are attributed to the changes in redox chemistry occurrs as a function of the sediment depth, partial mineralization of particulate organic matter as a result of the biotic or abiotic reduction and the effect of metal oxide through the dissolution and formation process.
Comprehensive assessment index system of ecosystem riparian zone
XIA Ji-hong, YAN Zhong-min, JIANG Chuan-feng
2005, 16(3): 345-348.
Abstract:
The riparian zone is the interface between stream and land.And its ecological status greatly affects the ecosystem status of the stream.The comprehensive assessment of the ecosystem riparian zone includes the structural stability assessment, landscape assessment, ecological health assessment, and ecosystem safety assessment.In order to give a reasonable assessment of riparian zone, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive assessment index system which has four layers: object layer, subobject layer, rule layer and factor layer.
Preliminary study on assessment of urban river ecosystem health
ZHAO Yan-wei, YANG Zhi-feng
2005, 16(3): 349-355.
Abstract:
Healthy river ecosystem is acknowledged as the object of river management,thus the study on urban river issues in terms of river ecosystem health theory is of great significance in theory and practice.Based on the analysis of urban river ecosystem health concept and its connotation,the index system,including water quality,water quantity,aquatic life,p hysical form and riparian wne,together with the five-grade assessment standard described as "very healthy,healthy,sub-healthy,unhealthy,sick",are established.The integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model is put forward to carry out the assessment.Furthermore,the above theory and method are applied to the case study of 4 urban rivers in Ningbo city to reveal their health grades and disadvantages,and provide decision-making base for their protection,maintenance and restoration.
Lateral erosion in downstream of the reservoir
ZHANG Chun-yan, CHEN Li, ZHANG Jun-Yong, WANG Zhi-guo
2005, 16(3): 356-360.
Abstract:
Based on the field data,the lateral erosion in the downstream of the resemvir is dealt with in the paper.The effect of lateral boundary condition,the river regime and the bed material on lateral erosion are analyzed.Some conclusions could be drawn:①The lateral erosion does exist in the downstream of the resemvir.The lateral erosion is slight at the begining,and then gradually enhanced,sometimes the lateral erosion in the downstream may result in a bigger width than before;②In the reaches where the lateral boundary conditions are strong,the lateral erosion is weak and it is strong in the reaches where the lateral boundary conditions are weak;③In the reaches where the bed material is coarse and the material in the bank is fine,the lateral erosion is strong,while in the reaches where the bed material is fine and the erosive resistance of bank is strong,the lateral erosion i s weak;And④in the bifurcated reaches,the lateral erosion mainly happens in the main channel;In the wandering reaches,the character of wandering is controlled firstly and the effect of lateral erosion is submerged;In the meandering reaches,the phenomena of the cut-bank and thrown-away-elbow are prevalent.
Establishment of evaluation indicators of ecological engineering methods
LEE Chin-yu
2005, 16(3): 361-367.
Abstract:
This study has established an initial methodology of assessment, based on the watershed scale, using several related indicators and classifying them biological and non-biological.Furthermore, we should combine the ecological engineering criteria so as to assess the efficiency of such methods.We establish a river water-quality monitoring project to know the different water qualities during, before and after its construction, and avoid destroying the river ecological environment.The ecological engineering methods should have different scales and notions in choosing the crieria, and mainly attach importance to the integrity of the watershed management.The decision-makers can refer to and use the different assessment criteria in working out their plans, meanwhile, offer the project-planned parameters with the ecological monitoring indicators in order not to destroy the ecological environment during the construction.
Analysis of flow field in device of water intakes without Oncemelania
FU Xiao-li, LI Da-mei
2005, 16(3): 368-372.
Abstract:
The Oncemelania is middle parasit izeder of Schistosome Controlling it is the important way to prevent the Schistosomula.The article mainly introduces the measurement of jet flow field's velocity in pressure conduit by FVM numerical modeling and the high-tech particle image velocity, and analyses the reason why the Oncemelania can sink to the bottom but not escape from the equipment named Oncemelania-free intake devices.
Flux balance method for shallow water equation with source terms
WANG Zhi-li, GENG Yan-fen, JIN Sheng
2005, 16(3): 373-379.
Abstract:
Based on the Roe's approximate Riemann solver, this paper presents the flux balance Godunov scheme for the shallow water equation with source terms.The decomposed source terms in the characteristic directions and the Roe's average method are used in the source terms.The numerical experiments are suggest that this method can keep the flux balance at the interface and make the scheme harmonious, robust and high in resolution.
Study on the complexity of runoff change based on the dis-noising of wavelet transform and symbolic dynamics
WANG Wen-sheng, HUANG Wei-jun, DING Jing
2005, 16(3): 380-383.
Abstract:
The study approach of runoff change complexity based on the de-noising of wavelet transform from symbolic dynamics viewpoint is present in the paper.First, the runoff sequences are dis-noised by the wavelet transform and the noise is filtered.Then the complexity of runoff change is calculated with the Lempel-Ziv algorithm.Finally some cases studies of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River are investigated.The results are as following: (1) Runoff change complexity in the Yellow River is higher than that of the Yangtze River.(2) The mean of runoff change complexity in the Yellow River basin is 8.3, and the trend of complexity from upstream to downstream has no evidence change.(3) Runoff change complexity in the Yellow River basin has no evidence change from time axial direction.
Research and application of the mathematical model for urban rainstorm water logging
XIE Yi-yang, LI Da-ming, LI Pei-yan, SHEN Shu-qin, YIN Jian-min, HAN Su-qin, ZENG Ming-jian, GU Xiao-qing
2005, 16(3): 384-390.
Abstract:
In this paper,a mathematical rmdel for urban rainstorm water logging is established,the n}und flow and river flow in the city are the main objects to be simulated.The rmdel is established on the basis of two-dimensional unsteady flow theory and the technique of nonstructural and irregular meshes.A method on the basis of one-dimensional unsteady flow theory is proposed to deal with small scale river.The different discrete forms of momentum equations are derived for different types of passages which are divided into the river type,the gmund type and the special passage type (small river in the cities),And the discharge per unit width in each passage of any grid is computed by the different discrete forms of momentum equations.The flow in the drainage pipe netc}ork is simulated by one-dimensional unsteady flow theory,and the calculation of the pumping stations,the water gates and submersed pipes is indicated.According to the idea of the nonstructural and irregular meshes,the topographies are considered and the calculation domains that imvlve any polygon are designed respectively in Tianjin City,Nanjing City and Nanchang City.The application and ern}r analysis of the mathematical rmdel in Tianjin,Nanjing and Nanchang are showed,too.
Multiple-attribute hierarchy group decision-making on regional water planning scheme
WANG Zhi-liang, MEN Bao-hui, QIU Lin, PEI Yuan-sheng
2005, 16(3): 391-396.
Abstract:
The optimize choice of region water resource planning scheme is a process with multi-attribute and group decisionmaking (MAGDM).On base of summarizing the recent research of this field, the conception of MAGDM is put forward and a grayed classified function including six kinds of data is built.The decision-making model includes the basic layer (A), expert layer (B) and the high-manage layer (C), meanwhile the concrete calculation step is explained.The current program is reality in Excel.The calculated result of the case shows that this model reflects the process for optimium choice water resources planning scheme.The thought of how to solve the model is clear and its conclusion is reasonable.This research result is both original in theory and valuable in practice for choosing to optimum water resource planning scheme.
Application of ant colony algorithm to reservoir optimal operation
XU Gang, MA Guang-wen, LIANG Wu-hu, CHEN Jian-chun, WU Shi-yong
2005, 16(3): 397-400.
Abstract:
This paper presents a new stochastic and heuristic searching algorithm,ant colony algorithm(ACA),and its applicanon to reserwir optimal operation.The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of ACA in solving "dimension difficulty" in the reserwir optimal operation problem.In the ACA,a set of co-operation ants work together to find a good solution to the reserwir optimal operation problem.The state transition rule,the global pherormne-updating rule and the neighbor search are also introduced to ensure the optimal solution.Once all the ants have completed their tours,a global pheromone-updating rule is then applied and the process is iterated until the stop condition is satisfied.A case study for solving "dimension difficulty" is presented in this paper.In contrast wrath the dynamic programming,the new algorithm shows its advantages on computing speed and convergence.
Study on the control range of reservoir’s flood limit water level based on water supply risk
YIN Jun-xian, CAO Yong-qiang
2005, 16(3): 401-405.
Abstract:
Based on the water supply risk and its variable process of Dalian city, this paper proposes a cost-benefit analysis method for flood resources to inquire into the control range of the reservoir's flood limit water level, according to the use course of the flood resources and flood range analysis.The result of a case study demonstrates that the proposed flood limit water level of Biliuhe reservoir can go up suitably, along with the step by step raise of water supply.
Available approach to controlling dynamically the limited level of reservoirs during the flood season
GAO Bo, WU Yong-xiang, SHEN Fu-xin, HU Si-yi
2005, 16(3): 406-411.
Abstract:
Controlling dynamically the limited level of reserwirs during the flood season is one of the main methods of utilization flood re}urces.Improving the flood forecast accuracy and period is the key to controlling dynamically the limited level of reserwirs during the flood season.Firstly,the paper illustrates the advances of the new generation of the weather radar,the meteorological satellite and the related application systems,and the roles of the new technology in the real time operation of reserwirs are discussed.Then,the methodology and the technical framework of improving flood forecast and optimizing the impounding scheme of the reservoirs by using synthetically the new technology are proposed.Based on this,the dynamic control range of the limited level of reservoir is analyzed synthetically to use flood safely wrath the Panjiakou Reserwir in the Haihe River Basin as an example,and the impounding strategy and regulating method of reservoir during the flood sewn are provided.
Analysis and research on the water price mode of the water transfer projects: A case study in the Yindajihuang project
LI Yun-cheng, LIU Chang-ming, YIN Ming-wan
2005, 16(3): 412-417.
Abstract:
In this paper, a new water price mode, TPSWPM (Two-Part Seasonal Water Price Mode), is designed for water saving, sustainable operation and the maximum benefits of water transfer projects.The mode is also improved to make its use more practicable The improved TPSWPM model is applied to the Yindajihuang (transferring water from Datong River to Huangshui River) water transfer project, the No.1 project of Qinghai province.
Analysis of water footprint and consumption pattern in Gansu Province
LONG Ai-hua, ZHANG Zhi-qiang, XU Zhong-min, SU Zhi-yong
2005, 16(3): 418-425.
Abstract:
Increasing shortage of water resources is an uncontroversial fact with the population growth and the economy development in Gansu Province of Northwest China.How to alleviate the pressing of water resource is a major issue faced by decision-makers.Water footprint research explores a new viewpoint to water resource management.In this paper,Gansu Province is taken as a case study to investigate the variation of water footprint and its relationship with the consumption pattern variation since 1989.The results indicate the virtual water consumed almost decreases year by year.Regardless of some degraded water enviro nment,the results show that the water footprint doesn't increased as expected,or even remains at 220×108-240×108m3/a,while the population increases,the economy scalesup and the consumption level goes up.The paper also inspects the relationship between the virtual water consumption,the water footprint and the consumption pattern variation since 1989,using the Shannon-Weaver equation.We find that the increase of the consumption diversities can reduce the water footprint,and lessen the stress of water resource system.Some policy implications of the water footprint and the consumption patterns are discussed in the last section.
A study on soil moisture content and plantation fitness for artificial sand-fixation forest in Horqin sandy land under
A La-Mu-Sa, PEI Tie-fan, JIANG De-ming
2005, 16(3): 426-431.
Abstract:
According to water balance theory, we study the soil moisture content and the evapotranspiration of Caragana microphylla plantation in different ages and density to ascertain the suitable configuration of the artificial Caragana microphylla sand fixation plantation in west Horqin Sandland.The result shows that the Soil moisture content is continually decreasing along with the increase of the ages and the density of the artificial sand-fixed vegetation.The soil moisture content of the artificial Caragana microphylla sand-fixed vegetation is less than that of the floating dune and the savage vegetation.There is remarkable positive correlativity between evapotranspiration and rainfall.The soil moisture content of 4 years old with 1m×1m density and 19 years old with 2 m×2 m density plantat ion is above wilting humidity, the soil moisture storage has surplus in the end of growth phases, and the soil moisture content can meet the needs of the plantation growth.We suggest that keeping 1 m×1 m density in infancy time and 2 m×2 m density in autumn by thinning techniques while establishing Caragana microphylla sand fixation forest.
Atmospheric water vapor transport from westerly and monsoon over the Northwest China
WANG Ke-li, JIANG Hao, ZHAO Hong-yan
2005, 16(3): 432-438.
Abstract:
Based on the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis of the climate data,the effects of westerly and monsoon on atmospheric water vapor transport over the Northwest China are analyzed.Mme significant results are showed.There are three obvious sub-regions of the water vapor transport over the Northwest China.The water vapor transport is primary from the southwest monsoon over the region to the south of the (Qinghai-Tibetan) Plateau shear line,and from the westerlies over the region to the north of the Plateau shear line,or from the both above over a saddle region to the northeast of the prolongation along the Plateau shear line.There are some water vapor transport streams from the southwest monsoon span or along the east brink of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.But the water vapor transports are primarly from the peripheral zone to the mainbody over the most of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,and there are no obvious transport stream spans over here.The primary water vapor transport is in the middle troposphere over the region over the north of the qnghai-Tibetan Plateau and in the low troposphere over the southern part of the qnghai-Tibetan Plateau.Over the most of the north of the qnghai-Tibetan Plateau,the water vapor transport is divergent,influent water vapor is again diffused out.The main of theqnghai-Tibetan Plateau and the eastern parts of the Northwest China are the convergence regions of the water vapor transport.The westerly water vapor transport is the basic water vapor source,and the westerly fluctuation has the direct effect on interannual change of the water vapor transport flux divergence over the rmst of the Northwest China.The Ruth Asia summer rmnsoon affects the southern and the eastern parts of the Northwest China by the southwest water vapor transport stream,and the westerly fluctuation by adjusting the circulation,and the westerly water vapor transport for the Northwest China.
Water vapor content in the atmosphere and its variation trend over North China
CAO Li-qing, YU Jin-hua, GE Zhao-xia
2005, 16(3): 439-443.
Abstract:
Based on the NCEP/NCAR global re-analysis grid data(2.5°×2.5° Lat/Lon) for 56 years (1948-2003), the water vapor contents in the atmosphere are calculated over North China.We analyze the geographic distribution of water vapor content in the whole atmospheric layer, annual variations of water vapor content along 37.5°N, annual variat ions of water vapor content along 115°E and the inter-annual variations of water vapor content from 1948-2003 over North China.The result shows that (1) the water vapor content in the atmosphere over Huabei areas mainly concentrates in the east and the south, but there is very little in the west and the north; (2) the water vapor content in the atmosphere over Huabei areas reaches the maximum in summer, and the minimum in winter; (3) the tendency of water vapor content in the atmosphere over Huabei areas is continually decreasing from the end of fifties to the middle of eight ies of the 20th contury.From the end of forties to the middle of sevent ies of the 20th contury, there exists higher water vapor content in the atmosphere; from the middle of seventies to the beginning of 21th century, the anomaly of water vapor content in the atmosphere is basically below zero, namely, the period of low value; and (4) there are obviously correlations between the inter-annual vacillation of water vapor content and the ENSO events.
Research progress on methods of quantifying seepage from rivers and canals
LUO Yu-feng, CUI Yuan-lai, ZHENG Zu-jin
2005, 16(3): 444-449.
Abstract:
The seepage from rivers or canals is an important issue in efficient water utilization and water environment safety, and therefore there is a need to quantify it.This paper reviews the methods for quantifying seepage from rivers or canals and their application conditions, the advantages and pitfalls are pointed out. Some possible ways for further investigation to improve current methods are proposed.
Research progress on surveying and calculation of evapotranspiration of plants and its prospects
SI Jian-hua, FENG Qi, ZHANG Xiao-you, ZHANG Yan-wu, SU Yong-hong
2005, 16(3): 450-459.
Abstract:
In this article,the achievement in the field of evapotranspiration research in the wand during last 200 years is reviewed.The main theories and methods for estimating evapotranspiration of crops or trees,including the hydrological,micrometeorological,plant physiological and rermte sensing methods,as well as dynamic simulating based on the water transport theories in soil plant atmosphere continuum (SPAC) are summarized.The application conditions,the performances and the problems in applications are discussed.The Hydrological methods can be used in many cases because of simplicity and unlimitedness by time and meteorological elements.The micrometeorological methods for calculating evapotranspiration,which not destray ground surface,can be used to measure an even formed stand.The plant physiological approach usually used to measure an individual tree.The remote sensing methods are under development.Although many problems remain to be solved,it is much useful for practice and looks very promising because it can provide regional evapotranspiration information.It is very accurate for measuring the evapotranspiration of plants and dynamic simulating based on water transport theories in SPAC.Based on those mentioned above,the future trends in evapotranspiration research of crops or trees are forecasted.
Application of the satellite data to numerical simulation of heavy rainfall
XU Zhi-fang, DANG Ren-qing, GE Wen-zhong
2005, 16(3): 460-467.
Abstract:
In this paper, we use the numerical model to perform the real-time rainfall forecast with GMS satellite data in Zishui River Basin from 15 May to 15 August in 2001.We also carry out numerical simulations of ten heavy rainfall cases in Huaihe River Basin with the TMI (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM) Microwave Imager data incorporated into the PSU/NCAR meso-scale model MM5 and use the data obtained by the TMI to change the distribution of rain water in the model.The results show that, for all floods caused by heavy rainfall events occurred in these 3 months in Zishui River Basin, our forecasts agree well with the observations.It provides the important reference for controlling flood beforehand Taking the Huaihe River Basin for example, since the TMI data can reflect meso-scale weather system with high resolution, the predicted rainfall distributions agree with the observations and the accuracy of predicting the threat score of ten heavy rainfall is higher than that without using the TMI data.
Monitoring method of evapotranspiration by remote sensing and its application in water resource management
SUN Min-zhang, LIU Zuo-xin, WU Bing-fang, LIU Yu
2005, 16(3): 468-474.
Abstract:
A review of advances in the rmnitoring method of evapotranspiration(ET) by the rermte sensing data and its applicanon in river water resource management is presented in this paper.Cbmpared to the traditional field work,the method has the characteristics of better economic rationality and practicability.The estimated ET based on the remote sensing is not only useful for evaluating agricultural water's use efficiency and irrigated system performance,but also helpful for managing river water rsource and planning regional water resource utilization.With the development of information technology,the rmnitoring method of ET by the rermte sensing shows a bright future in water management and is a valuable technology worthy of being researched further and applied wndely in China.