• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

2001 Vol. 12, No. 4

Display Method:
Numerical Modeling of Flow and Sediment Transports in Tidal River Networks
SHI Yong, HU Si-yi
2001, 12(4): 431-438.
Abstract:
According to the characteristics of flow and sediment transports in the tidal river networks, the paper establishes a one-dimensional unsteady flow model for simulating tidal current sediment and bed scoursilting processes.Some relevant problems including moving-land-boundary, sediment-carrying capacity formula selection, sediment concentration at inner boundary cross-sections and their solving algorithms are discussed.Based on the hydrologic and topographic data of Dongjiang lower networks, the model verification shows good results for the flow transport characteristics and the river bed variation patterns for the tidal river networks.
Numerical Simulation of Thermal and Saline Stratified Flow
HU Zhen-hong, SHEN Yong-ming, ZHENG Yong-hong, QIU Da-hong
2001, 12(4): 439-444.
Abstract:
Based on the N-S equation and the universal k-ε turbulent model,taking the character of therma and saline stratified flow and the effects of buoyancy on turbulence into account,the k-ε model of therma and saline stratified flow is established.Density stratified flow with both the vertical temperature gradient and the vertical salinity gradient is simulated numerically,in which turbulent terms are calculated by the k-ε turbulent model.The distributions of velocity,temperature and salinity are given in this paper.The feature of stratification and turbulence is described correctly by the rmdel.The computational results agree well with the experimental data.
Effects of AlCl3 on Fine Sediment Flocculation and Settling
CHEN Hong-song, SHAO Ming-an
2001, 12(4): 445-449.
Abstract:
Aluminum flocculants have an important role in the flocculation and settling of fine sediment, and are often used to clear muddy water and treat agricultural waste water.In this paper,sediment concentration of 10 g/L is prepared in 1 000mL cylinder which contained AlCl3 solutions with concentration ranging from 0 to 1.7mmol/L.The relative sediment concentration at the depth of 20cm below suspension surface is measured with a 20mL pipette.The results show that the sediment concentration decreases exponentially with time at the same depth below suspension surface.Effects of electrolyte on fine sediment flocculation and settling become small and the mean velocity decreases obviously after the suspension is mixed completely for several times.At the given sediment concentration,the emergence of the interface between supernatant and sediment suspension depends on the electrolyte and its concentration.When AlCl3 concentration is higher than 0.9mmol/L,the obvious interface will appear.At the same time,the interface settles uniformly with time,and the mean particle size is 0.0315mm with the mean velocity of 4.756cm/min.The critical particle size to flocculate is 0.027mm.
Application of the Wavelet to Study on the Turbulence Structure of Sediment-Laden Flow
LIN Peng, CHEN Li
2001, 12(4): 450-454.
Abstract:
In this paper the Db3 wavelet transform is applied to study instantaneous velocity of sedimentladen flow measured by the MicroADV, and according to the characterize of local property of the wavelet in time frequency, the high frequency noise is easily removed.The de-noised velocity is further analyzed as the higher frequency and the lower frequency part, the lower scale represents the regularity of velocity fluctuation on the whole and relates to coherence of turbulent, and the higher scale represents the fine structure of velocity fluctuation, which relates to the isotropic characteristic of turbulence.
Study on Effect of Starting Works Dredging River and Strengthening Dike on Deposition Reduction in the Narrow Reach of the Lower Yellow River
YAO Wen-yi, WANG De-chang, LI Guang-you
2001, 12(4): 455-459.
Abstract:
According to the observed data of starting works dredging river and strengthening dike in narrow reach of the lower Yellow River in 1997, the effect of dredging river on erosion-deposition variation in the channel and regulation of water surface profile is analyzed.The results show that the dredging river has a good effect on reducing channel's deposition and lowering flood stage in a certain period and a certain reach.The basic concept of effect on dredging sediment for deposition reduction is discussed also.
Spatial Variability of Soil Water and Salt in Field and their Estimations by the CoKriging
HU Ke-lin, LI Bao-guo, CHEN De-li, R. E. White
2001, 12(4): 460-466.
Abstract:
The soils at ninety-eight observing points by a square of 10×10(m2)were sampled in a wheat field (approximately 1 ha).The mil water and salt of each point in the layers of 0-20cm and 80-100cm were measured at different time.The results indicated that the soil water content under two layers at different time showed a normal distribution,the soil salt content in bottom soil showed a lognormal distribution and the soil salt content in surface soil showed an uncertain distribution.The variability coefficients of soil water and salt respectively belonged to the low and middle intensity.The semivariance analysis was used and found that the mil water and salt were correlated in a given spatial range.Preliminary analysis was made for the spatial dynamic variability of soil water and salt in different time.The Co Kriging method was alms used to estimate soil water and salt content,the estimated variance could be decreased by 136.3% comparing with ordinary Kriging.
Experimental Study on Parameters Identification for Two-Phase Flow (Water-Air) in Unsaturated Zone
CHEN Jia-jun, PENG Sheng, WANG Jin-sheng, WANG Zhi-ming, LI Shu-shen
2001, 12(4): 467-472.
Abstract:
The algorithms of key parameters identification for two-phase flow in unsaturated wne are studied,especially the experimental method of airphase parameter identification is approached,and the corresponding parameters are obtained.The auto-monitoring and data collecting system for air pressure is set up.The parameters obtained can serve as basis for further experimental simulation and modeling of two-phase flow.
Parametric Estimation of the Van Genuchten’s Equation by the Optimization Method
LI Chun-you, REN Li, LI Bao-guo
2001, 12(4): 473-478.
Abstract:
According to the principle of simplex evolutionary method, the Van Genuchten's Equation (VGE) of the curves which are used to describe the feature of soil water movement are fitted.The method can be used to estimate the parameters of the VGE's curves which describe the feature of water movement of different matrixes' soil, and the fitt ing error is very small.The algorithm is coded by means of the Visual Basic.The program provides many different kinds of data in and data out formats which now are used frequently, has friendly man machine interface, and is easy to use.
Study on Diffusive Wave Flood Routing for the Stage-Discharge Relationship Downstream Boundary Condition
HUANG Guo-ru, HU He-ping, TIAN Fu-qiang, YIN Da-kai
2001, 12(4): 479-484.
Abstract:
It is proved that the diffusive equation is accurate enough, but relatively simple, to calculate flood propagation both in theoretical and practical perspectives.The-stage discharge curve at the downstream boundary is combined with the cont inuity equat ion of the St Venant equations to create the stage discharge relationship type boundary condition for the downstream condition The Laplace transform method is employed to obtain the analytical solut ion to the diffusive equation with the boundary condit ion A case study indicates that the proposed method is adequate to calculate channel flood propagation.
Application of the Preissmann Implicit Scheme to Flow Computation for Reticular and Branched River Channels
LEI Zheng-xiong, JIANG Yan
2001, 12(4): 485-490.
Abstract:
River channels are often connected each other to form a reticular river channel or divided into two or more branches in plain areas.The numerical methods based on the Preissmann implicit scheme for flow simulation in these channels are discussed in this paper.After the derivation of the Saint-Venant Equations,water level and discharge of each cross-section are derived by the recursion method and the principle of water balance.The method is proved to be satisfactory when applied to the flow calculation in reach from Jiangyin to qnglonggang and Yanglin in downstream of Yangtze River.
Numerical Simulation of Anti-Regulating Reservoir
WEI Gen-qun, CHEN Bi-hong, SU Xiao-hui
2001, 12(4): 491-498.
Abstract:
In this paper the flow field of anti-regulating reservoir is computed and the feasibility of construction pumping station is analyzed.The body fitted coordinate method and the finite volume method are adopted to compute the flow field of anti-regulating reservoir.In both upstream and downstream, the flow velocities are adopted as boundary conditions, and a supplementary equation is adopted in order to maintain only one solution.
Study on the Risk Analysis Method of Flood-Control Decision Based on Water Stage Forecast
HUANG Zhen-ping, SHEN Fu-xin, ZHU Yuan-sheng, WANG Dao-xi
2001, 12(4): 499-503.
Abstract:
The risk analysis method based on water stage forecast was studied.In addition,the quantitative descriptions on various risks of flood control plans about whether to use the flood diversion areas or flood storage areas in the flood control system of the Yangtze River reach between Three Cbrges and Loushan were provided.
Study on Sustainable Development in Concordance within Water Resources, Water Environment and Economy for Dalian
CHEN Shou-yu, WANG Guo-li, ZHU Wen-bin, NIE Xiang-tian
2001, 12(4): 504-508.
Abstract:
Grundwater resources system and economy system of Dalian is analyzed firstly.This paper considers economy system,water re}urces system and water environment system as united macro-system.The systematic fuzzy decision-making theory,the hierarchical optimization theory and the theory of fuzzy neural network are applied in the developed concordant mode within water resources,water environment and economy.A study on sustainable development in concordance within the three for Dalian is preceded,and a optimized scheme is obtained.
Water Balance in Land-Atmospheric System over the Yalu Tsangpo River Basin
ZHANG Shun-li, TAO Shi-yan
2001, 12(4): 509-515.
Abstract:
The characteristics of water balance over Yalu Tsangpo River basin in Tibet are researched by using NCEP/NCAR twice daily (0000 and 1200UTC) reanalysis data,monthly runoff and precipitation for the period of 1980-1989,and the evaporation,soil and surface water storage are also estimated.The main results are as follows:(1) the Yalu Tsangpo River basin acts as a r}isture sink from May through October,where precipitation exceeds evaporation,and as a moisture source during NovemberApril,where evaporation exceeds precipitation;(2) in Yalu Tsangpo River basin,precipitation mainly occurs during summer,and runoff,whose peak value lags that of precipitation one month,cheifly supplied by precipitation;(3) the soil and subsurface water storage decreases from January to June,but increases after July and reaches its maximum in October;and (4) over Yalu Tsangpo River basin there are raising trends in precipitation,evaporation,and runoff in late 1980s,which are related to ENSO events.
Experimental Study on Threshold Rainfall Determination for Artificial Rainwater-Harvesting Catchments
LI Xiao-yan, GONG Jia-dong, GAO Qian-zhao
2001, 12(4): 516-523.
Abstract:
Based on the rainfall-runoff observations under the natural rainfall at the Gaolan Research Station of Ecology and Agriculture, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, in 1998-1999, the threshold rainfall values for 9 rainfall-harvesting catchments were determined by the linear regression model.The results indicated that: (1) the threshold rainfalls were 8.5mm, 8.0mm and 4.0mm under the no effect of the antecedent rainfall for the natural loess slope catchment, slope clearing catchment and compacted clay catchment, respectively, and (2) the threshold rainfalls were 6mm, 5.0mm and 1.9mm under the effect of the antecedent rainfall conditions, respectively.The threshold rainfall for the plastic film, the asphalt felt, the asphalt sprayed cat chment, the ‘big' pebble covered (7-14 cm in diameter) film and the "small" pebble-covered (2-6 cm in diameter) film catchments were 0.13mm, 0.21mm, 0.17mm, 0.98mm and 0.85mm, respectively.The threshold rainfall for the concrete cat chments is 1.48mm without the effect of the antecedent rainfall effect and 1.16mm with the antecedent rainfall effect.
Research on Some Questions Concerning the Load Capacity Analysis of Water Resources in the Northwest Region of China
WANG Yu, YANG Li-bin, ZHANG Xin-hai, HOU Chuan-he, HE Hong-mou, QIAO Xi-xian, SUN Shou-song
2001, 12(4): 523-529.
Abstract:
The largest population load is calculated and the load capacity of water resources in Northwest Regions of China is evaluated by analyzing the water resources, the potential water supply, the demand of human being and its development.The results indicate that the overload of population will occur in Yellow River basin, Hexi region and east region of Xinjiang province, because the water demand of population and economical development exceed the potential water supply.
Sustainability Assessment of Water Resources Utilization in Development of the West China
BAO Cun-kuan, SHANG Jin-cheng, LU Yong-sen
2001, 12(4): 530-534.
Abstract:
Many great rivers originate from West China where water resources are generally scarce, uneven distributed and irrationally utilized.It is in urgent need to carry out water resources sustainability assessment (WRSA) in development of the West China.This paper recommends that the WRSA should be brought into different hierarchical decision-making procedure through such environmental impact assessment (EIA) as the strategic, project technology and products, and domestic consumption behaviors.Effective property and value audit system for water resources should be established as soon as possible.Total quantity control and compensation system for water resources utilization should be implemented.Water saving industries and agricultures should be built, and effective technological measures should be taken for saving domestic water consumption and waste water reclamation.
Study on Soil Water Resource and Its Evaluating Methodology
XIA Zi-qiang, LI Qiong-fang
2001, 12(4): 535-540.
Abstract:
The paper defines soil water resource, stresses the significance of soil water resource research, analyzes components of soil water resource, and proposes methodology for evaluating soil water resource.The big attention is paid to the soil water resource which can be renewed, developed and utilized.It indicates that soil water resource development and utilization is one of important measures to ensure agricultural sustainable development, and to resolve water resources scarcity problem in China.
Design of Hydrology Data Compilation System Based on GIS
SONG Li-song, YU Kai-sen
2001, 12(4): 541-546.
Abstract:
A model of data compilation system is presented in this paper based on GIS, and is used in Hangzhou bay hydrological data compilation, which is proved to be effective and valuable.
Advances in Applications of Remote Sensing Data to Hydrology
FU Guo-bin, LIU Chang-ming
2001, 12(4): 547-559.
Abstract:
This paper gives the recent advances in applications of remote sensing data to hydrology.The direct remote sensing applications to hydrology means the hydrologic variables, such as areas covered by lakes, snow, glaciers or swamps, can be obtained from direct interpretation and analysis of remote sensing images.The indirect remote sensing applications to hydrology means the electromagnetic variables measured by remote sensing techniques have to be related to the hydrological variables empirically or with transfer functions.The most hydrologic parameters, such as runoff discharge, regional evapotranspiration, soil moisture etc., can only be acquired by this indirect way.The combination of remote sensing and GIS with hydrological process is also overviewed.
Integration of Geographical Information System Technology and Hydrological Model
WAN Hong-tao, ZHOU Cheng-hu, WAN Qing, LIU Shu
2001, 12(4): 560-568.
Abstract:
The conceptual hydrological model, which doesn't consider the spatial variation of the hydrological variable and parameter, mainly simulates the temporal process of the hydrological phenomenon in the catchment.Due to the increasing capacity of acquiring, archiving, storing, analyzing and visualizing the spatial geographical data, the distributed hydrological model, which considers the spatial variation of hydrological variable and parameter, is trend and focus in the hydrological research in the near future.In the paper the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and hydrological model are in detail discussed in two aspects:one is the integrating method of GIS and hydrological, and the other is the spatial discretion of the computational domain.In the end, the problem and future of integrating GIS, remote sensing and hydrological model are elucidated.
2001, 12(4): 569-570.
Abstract: