• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

2001 Vol. 12, No. 3

Display Method:
Efficient Solution Method for the Elliptic Mild Slope Equation
ZHENG Yong-hong, SHEN Yong-ming
2001, 12(3): 281-285.
Abstract:
An efficient solution method,BI-CGSTAB,is extended and used to solve the linear algebraic system obtained from the discretization of the elliptic mild slope equation and to simulate the wave propagation over various topography with mild slopes.The numerical results show that the BI-CGSTAB method is efficient for solving the elliptic mild slope equation.The results obtained by the BI-CGSTAB method are much same as those obtained by other authors with different solution methods,but the convergent rate is much faster than that of other methods.
Horizontal 2-D Uneven Sediment Mathematical Model in Dike Burst
YU Ming-hui, ZHANG Lao-feng
2001, 12(3): 286-290.
Abstract:
Based on the first order upwind scheme,the paper establishes a set of horizontal 2-D uneven sedinvent mathematical model in dike burst.Several simulated results are given to introduce the applicability of the numerical model.
Complex Response in Channel Adjustment in the Lower Yellow River during the Period of Clear-Water Scour
XU Jiong-xin
2001, 12(3): 291-299.
Abstract:
Based on the data of the Sanmenxia Reservoir during the period of clear-water scour in 1960-1964,the channel adjustment under the conditions of clear-water scour has been dealt with in the paper.The results indicate a marked difference in channel adjustment between the upper and lower reaches of the braided channel (the reach Tiexie to Taohuayu and the reach Taohuayu to Xinzhai).Accordingly,two types of complex response in channel adjustment have been identified:in the reach where the erosional resistance of bank material is strong and the bed material is coarse,the complex response is related with the adjustment of hydraulic parameters;and in the reach where the erosional resistance of bank material is weak and the bed material is fine,the complex response is related with the adjustment of channel morphology.These can be referred for predicting the tendency of channel change after the construction of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir.
Establishment and Verification of the Point Source Infiltration Model for the Filmed Hole Irrigation
WANG Wen-yan, TAN Qi-lin, JIAO Xi-yun, ZHANG Jiang-hui, DING Xi-li
2001, 12(3): 300-306.
Abstract:
In filmed hole irrigation,the infiltration from a field surface can be modeled as a 3-D Infiltration from a point source with sufficient water supply.In this paper,based on a series of experiments,a point source infiltration model which includes the effects of the hole diameter,the soil texture,and the initial soil moisture,etc.is developed.The accuracy of the model is satisfactory.The results would greatly benefit the stufy on the filmed hole irrigation theory and the irrigation technology.
Study on the Infiltration Characteristics of Single Filmed Hole and Its Mathematical Model under Filmed Hole Irrigation
WU Jun-hu, FEI Liang-jun, WANG Wen-yan
2001, 12(3): 307-311.
Abstract:
The paper researches single filmed hole infiltration law and the relation between filmed hole infiltration and vertical infiltration under adequate water supply based on indoor experimental data,suggests the filmed hole infiltration model based on Kostiakov infiltration equation,finds the connection between film hole infiltration parameters and vertical infiltration parameters,and determines the single filmed hole infiltration model according to vertical infiltration data.These research results have laid a foundation for further study of the theory and technology of filmed hole irrigation.
Test for Crop Coefficients of Rice in Plastic Film Mulched Dryland
PENG Shi-zhang, LI Rong-chao
2001, 12(3): 312-317.
Abstract:
The synthetic crop coefficients are evaluated by analyzing the experiment data on water requirement of rice in plastic film mulched dryland (RPFMD).In consideration of the effect of physiological and ecological indexes in RPFMD,the calculation formulas of the synthetic crop coefficient are proposed concerning on rice growth factors including canopy leaf area index,green leaves coverage of zenith angle,the effective fraction of soil surface shaded by vegetation and days after transplant.The calculation results are agreement with measured values,and the F test reaches an extreme significance level.The formulas are accurate enough to be applied to the calculation of actual evapotranspiration of RPFMD.
Study on Glaciological Simulation Model
BAO Wei-min, QU Si-min
2001, 12(3): 318-323.
Abstract:
In this paper,a glaciological simulation model was developed by the equations of heat,liquid and solid balance in the glacier,combined with the relation of water storage to discharge as well as heat content in glacier to melt water.This model was applied in the basin of No.1,headwater and hydrological station of Ulumuqi river.The tested results were satisfactory by comparing with the observed data in those two basins.
A Method on Determining the Parameters of the Hydrological and Energy-Balance Model and Its Use:A Case Study of Qinghai Lake at Holocene Megathermal
JIA Yu-lian, SHI Ya-feng, FAN Yun-qi
2001, 12(3): 324-330.
Abstract:
In monsoon area,if solar radiation,precipitation,geography environments(including topography and elevation) in a drainage basin are the same as that of another drainage basin,respectively,the climate condions in the two basins are alike,and the evaporation of both of lake and land surface of the two basins are also alike,respectively.The mufti-approching method which is based on these facts is used to determine the climate parameters of the J.E.kutzbach's hydrol}ic and energy balances,such as fractional cloud cover,surface albedo,surface temperature and surface water vapor pressure,and to calculate paleoevaporation and paleoprecipitation of drainage basin.This method is used to model the combined hydrological and energy and balances of Paleolake Qinghai,and yields an estimate of 585土lOmm for annual precipitation during Holocene Megathermal,which is at least more 200mm/a than the current rainfall in Qinghai Lake basin.
Study on vertical Distribution of Soil Erosion on Loess slope
LIU PU-ling, WU Chun-long, JU Tong-jun, YANG Ming-yi
2001, 12(3): 331-335.
Abstract:
The vertical variability is one of basic components of soil erosion on loess slope.The experiments on a erosion plot have firstly revealed that the vertical distribution pattern of sediment yield have three types:the continued-increasing type,the increase-decreasing type and the wave type.We have primarily developed a method estimating ration of rill erosion according to redistribution of the rare earth element on loess slope.
Study on Fissured Rock Seepage with Isotope Tracer Method at Xinanjiang River Right Dam
CHENG Jian-sheng, DONG Hai-zhou, LI Xing-wen, ZHOU Hua-wen
2001, 12(3): 336-342.
Abstract:
The fissured rock seepage flow field of Xinanjiang river right dam is studied by using the isotope tracer method.Such hydraulic parameters as flow velocity,flow direction and vertical flow can be obtained with the isotope tracer technique in single boreholes.The coefficients reflecting the permeable characteristics of fissure such as seepage coefficient,equivalent mechanic fissure width etc.are obtained combining with related seepage theories.The distribution of seepage field and the location of concentrated seepage passage are determined by analyzing these coefficients.
Experimental Simulation of Oncomelania’s Flow Field and Its Application
LI Da-mei, WANG Xiang-san, LAI Yong-gen
2001, 12(3): 343-349.
Abstract:
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease mostly found in areas along Yangtze River of China.The spread of the disease is solely through a middle-agent named oncomelania so the spread of schistosomiasis by oncomelania can be controlled by properly designing water intakes which prevent oncomelania from entering the farming land or residential areas.In this paper,a successful design process is reported and a new oncomelania-free intake device is demonstrated in the laboratory.The design on the new intake is based on a sound research program in which an extensive experimental studies have been carried out to gain knowledge of oncomelania ecohydraulic behaviors and a detailed flow field information is obtained through computation fluid dynamics simulation.
Analyzing Pollution Pattern in Seaward Firth of Jiaolujiang with A Numerical Method of Nonlinear Diffusion
WANG Xiang-san, LI Da-mei
2001, 12(3): 350-355.
Abstract:
On the basis of analyzing the flow regime and pollution pattern of the sea area of Jiaolu Jiang Firth,the pollutant nonlinear diffusion phenomenum in the seaward firth with mixed-up salt and fresh water is taken into consideration.The finite element method is used for conducting numerical analysis and the stability of the numerical solution is investigated.Comparing the calculated value with the measured one,it is verified that the result obtained has better accuracy.
Projection Pursuit Method for Assessing Analogy Basins
ZHANG Xin-li, DING Jing, WANG Shun-jiu
2001, 12(3): 356-360.
Abstract:
The paper briefly presents the projection pursuit classification model based on genetic algorithm and first introduces it to the choices of analogy basins in hydrologic calculation.Applying the projection pursuit model to research a practical case,we found that it can construct a characteristic index to discover tomprehensively complex relationship among several indexes of analogy basins.The new model is qualified and provides a new approach for assessing hydrologic analogy.
A Bilinear Time Series Model Based on Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Groundwater Level Regime
JIN Ju-liang, YANG Xiao-hua, JIN Bao-ming, DING Jing
2001, 12(3): 361-366.
Abstract:
A simple and universal scheme is presented for establishing the bilinear time series model (BM).All parameters of the BM can be optimized at the same time with the accelerating genetic algorithm developed by the authors,and the difficulty of modeling the BM is resolved,which gives a new tool for widely applying the BM.The examples show that the scheme applied to predicting groundwater level regime is practical and efficient,and the BM can ensure high fitting precision,robust forecasting and good adaptability to complex nonlinear dynamic systems by using the feedback information of prediction residual errors.As a general method,the scheme can be applied to the forecasting of nonlinear time series in various engineenng practices.
Kernel Density Estimation Model and Its Application to Stochastic Generation in Hydrology and Water Resources
WANG Wen-sheng, DING Jing, YUAN Peng
2001, 12(3): 367-372.
Abstract:
In this paper the kernel density estimation model based on kernel density estimation theories is established for time series of single variable.It belongs to a class of data-driven approach and avoids the form of probability distribution (normal or pⅢ)and the form of dependence (linear or nonlinear).The model has clear concept and singe structure.The model is applied to the stochastic generation of daily discharge time series at single station.The results indicate that the suggested model is suitable for stochastic simulation of hydrology time series.
Quality Evaluate Technique of Mu1ti-Sources Rainfall Data
ZHAO Wei-min, WANG Chun-qing
2001, 12(3): 373-377.
Abstract:
The main problems of the multi-sources rainfall data quality evaluation consist of different time interval,different spatial characteristics and unknown tnie rain value.The multi-sources rainfall data can be classed into two groups:point rainfall and continuous-net rainfall.Based on the hypothesis that surface rain gauge data would be the true rainfall at one point and rader measured rainfall data corrected by gauge datawould reflect the spatial distribution of true rainfall.This paper gives five aspects of quality evaluation technique of multi-sources rainfall data:single point,synthetical points,mean area rainfall,spatial distribution,and products of flood forecast system.
Water Resources Development and Oasis Evolution in Inland River Basin of Arid Zone of Northwest China──A Case Study: Minqin Basin of Shiyang River
LIU Heng, ZHONG Hua-ping, GU Ying
2001, 12(3): 378-384.
Abstract:
Water Resources development plays a key role in the ecological environment of inland river basins of arid and semi-arid zone in Northwest China.According to experimental observation,it is clear to see that growth of natural plants have a close relation with local groundwater level.A good ecological system in the oasis of the zone is the precondition for sustainable development,therefore,the water resources development and ecological environment protection should be integrated in one system in the Grand Western Development.As a case study,the egulation and relationship of water resources development,irrigation area arrangement and oasis evolution have been analyzed in Minqin,the downstream of Shiyang River in Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province(It will provide the foundation of analysis for rational irrigation and environment protection in Minqin Basin).
3-Dimensional Seepage Analysis Caused by Excavating Another Drainage Corridor in Dam
HUANG Wei, LIU Ying-xi, SUN Ling-zhu
2001, 12(3): 385-389.
Abstract:
Based on research of the design program of excavating another drainage corridor in the dam,two kinds of 3-dimensional static seepage algorithm,the loosen method and the abandoned element method,are given and compared them with analytic solution.Then the abandoned element method is used to research the seepage finite elemenx of the dam of Fongmeng.The conclusion is that it can lower the frozen point at lower reaches for excavating another drainage corridor.The result of strength analysis shows that the program putting into practice'vtill not influent the safety reliability of the dam.
A Simplified Optimal Operation Model for Comprehensive Utilization Multiple Reservoir System
ZHU Ying-yuan
2001, 12(3): 390-394.
Abstract:
A simplified optimal operation model for multiple reservoir system,dynamic emptying storage coefficient method,is introduced by least surplus water in this paper.The emptying storage coefficient of a reservoir at any time indicates the ability of water storage and supply of the reservoir at that time.Based on this method,the storage and draft orders of a multi-reservoir system are determined by the factors of every reservoir of the system in the initial of a time interval,and the emptying storage coefficients of every reservoir are kept equal at the end of the interval under constraints.In this way,the runoff can be retained in reservoirs as much as possible and waste water will be minimized.The model is simple and easy,and can be used for small multiple reservoir system with multi-purpose.
Advances in Study of Runoff Detachment Processes Based on Hydraulics
ZHANG Guang-hui
2001, 12(3): 395-402.
Abstract:
Runoff detachment is one of principal sediment resources,and also is one of dominant parameter for soil erosion modeling.Thia paper reviews research method,mean flow velocity measurement,dominates equation,detachment capacity and transport capacity in the runoff detachment processes,which aim at to introduce researched results and experiences and to advance relative researches in China.
Application of the Turbulence Model to Environmental Hydraulics problem
HUA Zu-lin
2001, 12(3): 403-412.
Abstract:
This paper summarizes application of the turbulence model to study the characteristic of flow field and the pattern of mass mixing diffusion transportation.The research present situation and new development trend on the turbulence model are analysed in detail.Moreover,the viewpoint on environmental hydraulics problem solved by turbulence model is put forward,and the traits of zero-equation turbulence model,one-equation turbulence model,two-equation κ-ε turbulence model and the revised anisotropic κ-ε turbulence model,the Reynolds stress model,the algebraic Reynolds stress model,the low-Reynolds flow model and the senior simulation of turbulence flow are discussed.
Water Environment Problem of Irrigation in China
ZHOU Wei-bo, LI Pei-cheng
2001, 12(3): 413-417.
Abstract:
Based on the existing states of water resources and water environment in China,the paper points out that shortage and low use factor as well as water pollution result in the deterioration of soil-water resource and ecological environment in the irrigation,which can be effectively solved by water-saving,renewing wastewater and conservation water.
Problems and Their Solutions in Physical Modeling of River Process in Alluvial Streams
ZHANG Hong-wu, FENG Shun-xin
2001, 12(3): 418-423.
Abstract:
The physical modeling is still a main approach to solve the sedimentation problems existing in the large stream training and hydraulic projects.In this paper,some key problems,usually found in the designing of physical model and conducting physical modeling,such as geometrical distortion,time distortion,and modeling of composition of bed load are discussed,and also the feasible solutions to them are proposed in this paper.
Principle of Maximum Entropy and Its Application in Hydrology and Water Resources
WANG Dong, ZHU Yuan-sheng
2001, 12(3): 424-430.
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to introduce briefly the concept and theory of the principle of maximum entropy,and to review the state-of-the-art of its application in hydrology and water resources.