• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

1999 Vol. 10, No. 3

Display Method:
1999, 10(3): 201-201.
Abstract:
The Emergence of Scientific Hydrology in the Twentieth Century
James C. I. Dooge
1999, 10(3): 202-214.
Abstract:
The general growth of the scientific basis for hydrology is reviewed through reference to outstanding publications which in the opinion of the author represent landmarks in that process. The discussion is organised on the basis of four periods each with a special feature. These are(a) the period of empiricism(1900-1930), (b) the period of rationalisation (1930-1950), (c) the period of theorisation (1950-1975) and (d) the period of computerisation (1975-2000).
On the Relation between Hydrology and Science of Water Resources
CHEN Jiaqi
1999, 10(3): 215-218.
Abstract:
Hydrology is the basis of the science of water resources.As the science of water resources going forward,it sets freqently higher and new demand on hydrology,and hydrology makes further advances on itself in giving more effective cooperation with the science of water resources.The science of water resources and hydrology are going forward along their own way of development respectively.Conseqently they can promote development mutually so that they can be interdependent each other and make progress together.
World Water Resources and Water Use: Modern Assessment and Outlook for Future
I. A. Shiklomanov
1999, 10(3): 219-234.
Abstract:
During 1990-1996 the scientists of the State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, under the scientific guidance of the author of this article, made a new combined assessment of the world water resources, water use and water availability in the dynamics including a forecast for a remote future.The article gives in brief some new quantitative data on the dynamics of renewable water resources of continents. Physiographic and economic regions and selected countries of the world which are generalized from the world hydrological network data. The values of the global water use for the needs of population, industry and agriculture are given as well as the value of the water availability in the dynamics for the current century and for the future before 2010-2025. The analysis of long-term trends of the world water resources, water use and water availability changes has been made depending on the climatic factors and socio-economic conditions.It is planned to publish all the results of these studies as a monograph "World Water Resources at the Beginning of XXI Century" in 1999, Cambridge, University Press.
A Thought on Flood Control, Disaster Mitigation and Countermeasures in China
XU Qianqing
1999, 10(3): 235-241.
Abstract:
This paper introduces briefly the flood control regimes in China's major rivers in the nineties of the 20th century, and focuses on their main characteristics, such as channel course shrink, reduction of river discharge capacity, upgrade of river stage, serious urban flood disasters, aggravation of flood and water-logging and rapid increase of flood disaster losses, etc. Based on the historical review of flood control strategies, the target and standard of flood-control and disaster mitigation are discussed, and the countermeasures of flood-control and disaster mitigation are also outlined.
Systematic Analyses on Abnormally High Flood Stages of Middle Yangtze River in 1998
HU Siyi, SHI Yong, QI Chen, WANG Yintang, WU Yongxiang
1999, 10(3): 242-250.
Abstract:
The flood event in the middle Yangtze River(Changjiang River)in 1998 is simulated and rebuilt,utilizing a numerical model characterizing flood routing in the river-lake system,to quantificationally analyze how the changes of three diversion rivers along Jingjinang reach,of Dongting Lake storage volume,of flood storage & diversion have influenced the flood situations in Jingjiang reach,Dongting Lake,and Chenglingji-Hankou reach.Combined with qualitative physical interpretation,the cause of abnormally high flood stages in 1998 and its interaction with flooding in the river-lake-coupled system are thoroughly discussed.In addition,the effects of restoring the farmland to natural state and of Three-Gorge Reservoir in the flood in 1998 are presented.
Ecological Aspects of Water Cycle: Advances in Soil Vegetation Atmosphere of Energy and Water Fuxes
LIU Changming, SUN Rui
1999, 10(3): 251-259.
Abstract:
This paper dealts with major progresses in China regarding water cycle studies and ecological aspects of Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) in terms of energy and water fluxes. Firstly, the authors of present paper described their views on critical mechanism of water interactions including patterns and interfaces of subsystems' coupling. Secondly, the authors reviewed some research work on water and energy balance in farmland ecological system, in China's arid-semiarid lands, in terrestrial processes at large scale, in applying remote sensing data to energy fluxes and in resolving scale problems for the coupled systems.
On Eco-Economical Model of Environmental Hydro Science——Following the Green Road for Water Conservancy
SHEN Ganqing
1999, 10(3): 260-264.
Abstract:
Based on the idea of sustainable development, this paper proposes a conceptional model called eco-economical model of environmental hydro-science. Thermodynamically speaking, it is a model of low entropy. Philosophically speaking, it is a model of combining nature and human into one and keeping them in conformity with the Great Harmony. In this model the environmental hydro-science is a new science newly developed in China, which deals with the interrelation between water resources and environment comprehensively and systematically. For the application, eight points of the above stated model are discussed detailly.
Water Circulation and Its Climate Background
ZHANG Jiacheng
1999, 10(3): 265-270.
Abstract:
The artical takes water transporting from oceans through atmosphere to the continents as a key link of water circulation, which consists of evaporation, precipitation, atmospherical circulation and runoff as its main constituents, related closely with climate and its change. From the main zone of evaporation in oceans, the summer monsoon is the essential current of water transportation. The high variability of monsoons would cause the high variability of water cycling. The artical discusses how El-Nino and global warming influences the water cycling and precipitation. It is highlighted that the importance of human activities is one of the causes forming the water deficiency in modern times and confirms that man would be able to reestablish the harmony between nature and man, and successfully solves the water problems confronted.
The Large-Scale Interaction between Ocean and Atmosphere and the Hydrological Cycle
XING Runan
1999, 10(3): 271-277.
Abstract:
The phenomena and process about the large-scale interaction between ocean and atmosphere and their impact on global hydrological cycle and climate are introduced. The principal issure of research in future is discussed brbriefly.
Extremly Heavy and Light Meiyu in Yangtze and Huaihe Valleys
ZHANG Yan, BAI Jianqiang
1999, 10(3): 278-287.
Abstract:
The extremly heavy and light Meiyu in the Yangtze and Huaihe valleys through 1885-1998 have heen survied.Among them,the characteristics of precipitation,the abnormall changes,some fore-going features and serious retraded influences of four extra-heavy and three void of Meiyu episodes in recent 60 years are studied.And some problems are discussed also.
Research on Mechanism of Off Shore Sea Surface Topography in China
ZHAO Mingcai, GAO Guixu
1999, 10(3): 288-295.
Abstract:
In this paper,the methods of geometric leveling,spheric harmonic function and hydrostatic leveling used for calculating the mechanism of off-shore sea surface topography are presented,where the hydrostatic leveling method is mainly mentioned.The paper also pointed out that the isostatic effect and non-isostatic effect of atmospheric pressure must be considered when the Chinese off-shore sea surface topography is computed by using the hydrologic data.With the quantitative analysis of the effects on Chinese off-shore sea surface topography caused by the factors of hydrology and atmospheric pressure,and the north equatorial current(Kuroshio)in pacific ocean as well,some useful conclusions have been obtained.
A Review of Shallow-Water Hydrodynamics and Some Contemporary Problems
TAN Weiyan
1999, 10(3): 296-303.
Abstract:
Since the 1950s computer modelling of water flows which satisfy approximately shallow-water conditions,has been greatly influenced by gas dynamics in many aspects,so that the formation of both theoretical and computational shallow-water hydrodynamics has been promoted during the end of this century.
Present Status and Prospect of Study on the Subsurface Drainage Criteria
ZHANG Weizhen, ZHANG Yufang
1999, 10(3): 304-310.
Abstract:
Due to high standing of water table in plain areas with concentrated rainfall the crops often suffer from waterlogging,with the aim of increasing crop production it is required to construct drainage systems for water table control.In this paper the present status and prospect of study of drainage indexes and criteria used in subsurface drainage design,such as minimum permissible water table depth,the designed rate of water table drawdown after a rainfall event,the cumulative excess water depth SEWx in the growth period of crops,the stress day index SDI and the cumulative yield reduction index CRI etc are reviewed.
A Review of Soil Water Research
LEI Zhidong, HU Heping, YANG Shixiu
1999, 10(3): 311-318.
Abstract:
Soil water is the connection of surface water and groundwater.It is of great significance in the formation,transformation and consumption of the water resources and has close relationship with agriculture,hydrology and environment etc., so that the soil water research has been drawn more and more attention and made great progress.The main achievements of the soil water research are as follows.(1) Soil water research is of interdiscipline characteristic,such as coupled water,heat and salt transfer,water transfer in freezing soil, water and heat transfer in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum(SPAC).(2) The mechanisms of soil water movement were studied deeply,such as siol water potential flow,measurement and determination of soil water parameters spatial distribution of siol water parameters. (3) Advanced numerical simulations were introduced in soil water research,such as finite analysis method,characteristic finite element method,and alternating direction finite element method.(4) Results of soil water research have been applied widely,such as the assessment of water resources,the study of the relationship between crop and soil water and the assessment of water environment.
A Review of Hydrologic Frequency Analysis
JIN Guangyan
1999, 10(3): 319-327.
Abstract:
In this paper, the history of the hydrologic frequency analysis and research is reviewed, the commonly encountered problems, such as the type of frequency curves, the empirical frequency formulas, estimation of statistical parameters and application of special data, are described. The summary of main accomplishments for the frequency analysis in recent 50 years is emphasized, and the analysis idea, the exploring study, the practical application and the practical experience are dissected. It is considered that, now there are a set of hydrologic frequency methods having Chinese specialty are developed to provide the scientific grounds for engineering needs and to act as contribution for development of the hydrologic science.
Studies on Design Storm and Rainstorm Characteristics in China
WANG Jiaqi
1999, 10(3): 328-336.
Abstract:
Studies on design storm and the characteristics of rainstorms fallen on the ground are paid great attention highly by the departments of water resources and hydroelectric power.The rainstorm studies of China in recent 50 years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.The generalized estimate studies of China's design storms,the improvements for the analysis and computation methods of design storms,and the advances in the studies of rainstorm characteristics are discussed respectively.For each study,main contents,data foundations,analysis methods and important conclusoins are presented briefly.
A Review of Sediment Research in China
WANG Guangqian
1999, 10(3): 337-344.
Abstract:
It is well known that sediment research in China has got a great achievements since the past fifty years. What are its role, status and development are presented in this paper first. Then the main achievements are introduced on four aspects: theory of non-equilibrium transport of sediment, hyperconcentrated flow, engineering sediment, and river evolution and regulation management. Finally, main directions of sediment research are discussed on the fundamental study, the basin numerical modelling, the sediment depostion simulation over long time, and the coastal sediment dynamics.
Some Advances in Geomorphologic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph Theory
RUI Xiaofang
1999, 10(3): 345-350.
Abstract:
It is interesting to derive the watershed hydrology respond based on geomorphology and topography parameters of the watershed.? In this paper, the approaches of the geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph obtained according to the Horton-Strahler's odering system and the random network model are reviewed, and the geomorphoclimatic instantaneous unit hydrograph is also introduced.