• 全国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科技核心期刊
  • 美国工程索引(EI)收录期刊

1993 Vol. 4, No. 3

Display Method:
Computation and Study of the SST in Chinese Coastal Waters
Zhai Guojun, Zhao Mingcai, Huang Motao
1993, 4(3): 161-170.
Abstract:
The development of Sea Surface Topography (SST) is briefly introdued in this paper. Then the slope of the Mean Sea Level (MSL) and its precision are calculated through the comparisons with geometric levelling. Meanwhile, a new method of computing the SST, which uses the hydrographie data in Chinese coastal waters, is proposed. And finally, the theory and method of computing the SST of Chinese coastal water are investigated using spheric harmonic model. With the comparisons of the different methods, some useful conclusions are obtained.
A Model of PAR Transfer in Atmosphere-Water System and Primary Productivity of Lake
Cai Qiming, Yang Ping
1993, 4(3): 171-178.
Abstract:
A model of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) transfer in atmosphere-water system is put forward to calculate the spatial and temporal variation of PAR in the water of Taihu Lake by using meteorological data and measured suspensions. The effects of aerosol, ozone, water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as well as the multiscattering and absorption of water surface wave, yellow substance, suspended particles and phytoplanktons in the water are taken into consideration. Finally, the primary productivity of Taihu Lake is calculated with bio-optical model. It is shown that the results may basically reflect the variation tendency of primary productivity with water depth.
Simulation Experiment for the Effects of Forest on Surface Runoff
Fan Shixiang, Pel Tiefan, Niu Lihua, Chi Zhenwen
1993, 4(3): 179-182.
Abstract:
A new research approach, laboratory simulation experiment, is used for experiments of woodland runoff and non-forest land runoff: The results indicate that woodland reduces the amount and alters the time distribution of runoff. However, there is a limit to these functions. We think the approach is an effective way for forest hydrological research and needs perfecting further.
Ecological-Environmental Impact of Water Engineering Projects on the Baiji, Lipotes vexillifel
Hua Yuanyu, Wu Jingyan
1993, 4(3): 183-189.
Abstract:
The Baiji, a rare Yangtze species, usually frequents certain sections in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Due to the impact of extensive sluicedam building at the lake-river mouths, channel cutoffs of the lower jingjiang, and the Gezhouba Dam project, it caused a change in channel flows and consequent channel erosion in those affected sections, thus undermining the Baiji's habitat. The research and field surveys in 1991 indicate that there was no Baiji in the Yichang-Shashi reach (160 km), and its distribution density was gradually rarefied in the Ochikou-chenglingji reach, and the total population was reduced to less than 150. It is presaged that the planned Three Gorges Project, once completed, could make a more serious impact on those species. Hence, a reserve strategy must be established to protect this endangered species.
1993, 4(3): 189-189.
Abstract:
A Grey Correlative Analysis and Pattern Recognition Applied to Mid-long Term Runoff Forecasting
Xia Jun
1993, 4(3): 190-197.
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of mid-long term runoff forecasting. An extended dimension approach from one dimension to multiple dimensions in hydrological time series was developed in terms of the idea of pooling hydrological information from different sources whereby historical data were used to form a family of runoff pattern and a set of corresponding forecasting vector. A workable and practical method called as the grey correlative pattern recognition was developed to determine a most similar hydrological pattern and forecast runoff in the leading time. Eight catchments under different climate conditions in the basins of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River were selected for verifying annual and monthly runoff forecasting. It was found that the proposed method yields a better runoff forecasting than the AR (p) model.
Optimum Control of Groundwater Quantity and Quality—Application of Geometric Programming
Lü Xianbi, Zhang Sicong
1993, 4(3): 198-206.
Abstract:
The Geometric programming (GP) method is applied to tackle the optimum control problem of groundwater quantity and quality. The nonlinear programming is easy to solve through transforming nonlinear restraints into linear ones by using the GP method.In order to put the GP method into practical use for the one-dimensional steady groundwater quantity and quality control problem, the velocity factor is separated form the coefficient matrix of water quality equation. And, the concentration can be expressed in an explicit form, thus reducing the number of restraints greatly. The Avriel-williams method is used to treat the negative coefficient problem. The proposed example shows that the GP method is feasible and effective.
Optimization Model of Designing Non-Sufficient Irrigation Schedules
Zhnag Zhanyu, Li Shoushen, He Junshen, Wang Yianzhang, Liu Yunhua
1993, 4(3): 207-214.
Abstract:
Irrigation problems of winter wheat in arid regions are studied in this paper. By analyzing the crop model and the crop moisture response function, with the aim of maximum yields, this paper presents a two dimensional dynamic programming model so as to optimize non-sufficient irrigation schedules. A related calculation method of dynamic programming successive approximations (DPSA) has been given. The model has been used to solve practical problems in Xiaobudong irrgation district, Linyi city, Shandong Province. The optimum irrigation schedules, the processes of drainage and the related yields for three typical years with different supply water are obtained. The example shows that the model and the method are reasonable.
Generalized Guaranteed Rate and Multiobjective Optimization for Water Resources Systems Management
Chen Shouyu, Qiu Lin
1993, 4(3): 215-220.
Abstract:
This paper surveys the state-of-the-art of the reliability for water resources systems management and points out that there exist the stochastic and fuzzy factors influencing the uncertainties of the systems. The conception, definition, and computational method of the generalized guaranteed rate are presented, with considering the stochastic and fuzzy properties in a general aspect. The multiobjective optimization problem with generalized guaranteed rate objectives in water resources systems is studied by multiobjective fuzzy optimal selection stochastic dynamic programming(MOFO SDP). Finally, a case study is given.
Critical Condition for Inception of Suspended Sediments
Cheng Niansheng, Zhu Lijun
1993, 4(3): 221-228.
Abstract:
The bed deformation and sediment transport result from the exchanges among various form of sediment motion.It is significant to take into account interaction among suspended load, bed load and movable bed to explore the mechanism of bed changes and improve modelling methods. Considering the influences of near-bed turbulence on the critical condition of suspending processes of sediment particles, a theoretical criterion is presented according to the concept of probability of suspension. In addition,several previous formulae are thus analysed and reviewed.
Calculation Results and Sensitivity Analysis of Channel Deformation on the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh
Hu Chunhong, Han Qiwei
1993, 4(3): 229-236.
Abstract:
Some characteristics of a mathematical model simulating the channel deformation of the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh are described, Under the assumption that the water conveying and sediment carrying capacities in prototype and normalized channels are equal, a single equvialent channel is adopted as a calculating section. Based on analysis and comparison of measured data, some sedimet missing datum are determined. The calculation results of the model agree well with the deformation of the river channel observed during 1965-1989. Then, river channel deformation under different regulations schemes is predicted. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is carried out, and some sensitive factors are pointed out.
State and Prospect of Water Resources Decision Support System
Hu Tiesong, Wan Yonghua, Feng Shangyou
1993, 4(3): 237-242.
Abstract:
This paper Presents the concept of water resources decision support system (WRDSS), and the state and future trends of WRDSS are also reviewed by means of a number of examples including reservoir poeration, water quality planning and management, water supply system operation and irrigation system management.
1993, 4(3): 243-243.
Abstract: