The exploration of variation trend of ground water resources is basic work to identify groundwater environmental problems and strengthen groundwater resource management. Based on the data of previous evaluation results of water resource survey and water conservancy statistical yearbook from local water conservancy departments, the change of groundwater resources from 1956 to 2016 and its influencing factors were analyzed. In addition, the causes of groundwater resource variation were investigated. The results showed that the amount of groundwater resources declined from 1956 to 2016 in the Xinjiang plain area. The dynamic variation of groundwater recharge was featured with stable natural recharge. Moreover, the surface water conversed recharge had a dramatically shrunk. Analysis from the structure of groundwater recharge showed that the significant decrease in canal seepage resulted in the decrease in groundwater resources, the increase in river seepage offset the decrease of groundwater resources. The increase in irrigation water consumption in plain area, which was led by the expansion of irrigation area, resulted in the decrease in groundwater resources. The impact of human activities on groundwater resources is greater than that of climate change.