Under the global change, water crisis was identified as the most critical issue of the world crisis in the coming 10 years. The topics of most concern in the water crisis are the transboundary water dispute and its geo-cooperative competition in international rivers. Many scientific and technical problems need to be solved for transboundary water security and benefit sharing. In this paper, the research progress of water security and water benefit in international rivers were reviewed, and their problems and challenges identified. Focusing on the establishment of theories and methods for transboudary water benefit sharing adapting to the global change, the key scientific and technical problems, and the innovative approaches were proposed; the major objectives and contents, and the general scheme and technical routes for multi-discipline researches, have been set. These researches will facilitate the development of water science of international rivers, and strengthen the capacity building to governance the transboundary water risks under the global change.